Electromagnetic Field Therapies: A Bibliography from Medline

Phil Rogers MVB MRCVS
1, Esker Lawns, Lucan, Dublin, Ireland
e-mail : philrogers@tinet.ie

3. Brain damage, epilepsy, depression, nerve and spinal cord damage

Antimonii GD, Salamov RA (1980) [Action of a modulated EMF on experimentally induced epileptiform brain activity in rats - Article in Russian]. Biull Eksp Biol Med Feb;89(2):145-148. Effect of the modulated EMF (MEMF) on the experimentally evoked epileptiform activity of the brain structures was studied. The effect of 2-30 hz MEMF induced suppression of brain epileptiform activity in 41% of experiments. The epileptiform activity was markedly decreased in 23% and potentiated in 10% of the experiments, while in 25% of the experiments the MEMF effect did not essentially change the pattern of the evoked epileptiform brain activity. PMID: 7370408, UI: 80175731

Barker AT (1991) An introduction to the basic principles of magnetic nerve stimulation. J Clin Neurophysiol Jan;8(1):26-37. Dept of Med Physics and Clinical Engineering, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK. Magnetic nerve stimulation is a new method for the noninvasive stimulation of neuromuscular tissue. The technique, developed at the Univ of Sheffield, UK, is being increasingly used for both clinical studies and basic research, with some 500 stimulators presently in use worldwide. This paper looks at the development of magnetic stimulation as a clinical tool. The basic physics principles of the technique are outlined, and the different magnetic field waveforms, coil geometrics, and orientations that can be used are discussed. The depth of penetration of magnetic stimulation is compared to that of conventional electrical stimulation using surface electrodes. The former generated lower electric fields at the surface of the body, resulting in greater penetration and the ability to stimulate deep nerves without pain. Magnetic stimulation has many other advantages over electrical stimulation, including being able to stimulate the human brain without discomfort due to the magnetic fields passing through the skull without attenuation. These advantages, along with the limitations of the technique, are discussed. Finally, data relating to the safety of brain stimulation are summarised in terms of the EM parameters used. The present generation of magnetic stimulators cause no acute hazards, provided their electrical and mechanical design meets the relevant electromedical safety standards. Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial PMID: 2019648, UI: 91210409

Del Seppia C, Ghione S, Luschi P, Papi F (1995) Exposure to oscillating magnetic fields influences sensitivity to electrical stimuli: 1: Experiments on pigeons. Bioelectromagnetics 16(5):290-294. Dipartimento di Scienze del Comportamento Animale e dell'Uomo Universita di Pisa, Italy. The comparison of two measurements of the pigeon threshold for electrical stimuli, performed 2 h apart, reveals stress-induced analgesia as a result of stressful manipulations between the two tests. When pigeons are exposed to a weak, oscillating magnetic field between the two measurements, the analgesic response is inhibited and a hyperalgesic effect is recorded. The present findings are in agreement with previous studies showing that magnetic treatments may alter pigeons' emotional state and some of their behavioral patterns. PMID: 8554629, UI: 96126586

Geddes LA (1991) History of magnetic stimulation of the nervous system. J Clin Neurophysiol Jan;8(1):3-9. William A. Hillenbrand Biomedical Engineering Ctr, Purdue Univ, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. The use of a time-varying magnetic field to induce a sufficiently strong current to stimulate living tissue was first reported by d'Arsonval in 1896. Since then, there have been many studies in what is now called magnetic stimulation. This paper traces the history of this field from d'Arsonval to its present use in neurophysiology. Publication Types: Historical article PMID: 2019649, UI: 91210410

Halmo M, Rattaj J, Chochol D, Kalmancokova A, Juras L (1994) [The effect of electromagnetic stimulation on the depressive syndrome - Article in Slovak]. Bratisl Lek Listy Mar;95(3):117-121. INTERDAT v Pezinku, Slovakia. The antidepressive effect of stimulation by static 12.5 mT EMF of low induction is described. They report the occurrence of the antidepressive effect in 3 groups of depressive patients who were hospitalized in a mental hospital. 45 patients in group 1 were given a single stimulation of static 12.5 mT EMF, in the time schedule of 3x3 m with 1 m breaks between the periods of EM stimulation. In 55% of them, the antidepressive effect has been seen, although of short duration. The experiments in group 2 were arranged as being double blind. Patients in the stimulated group reacted by positive antidepressive effect more often than in the placebo group; the level of significance was 5%. In the third group of 19 patients, the stimulation was applied repeatedly. There was no evidence of confirmation of the assumption that repetition of stimulation could possibly stabilize and prolong its antidepressive effect, particularly by applying our used induction values. In spite of these facts it is possible to assume that in future the described antidepressive effect, after finding the appropriate manner, will be of therapeutic use. (Tab. 4, Fig. 1, Ref. 7.) PMID: 7922637, UI: 95006977

Jacobson JI (1994) Pineal-hypothalamic tract mediation of picotesla magnetic fields in the treatment of neurological disorders. Panminerva Med Dec;36(4):201-205. Institute of Theoretical Physics and Advanced Studies for Biophysical Research, Jupiter, FL 334377-1418, USA. The objective of this study is analysis of the clinical efficacy of picotesla magnetic fields in the treatment of epilepsy, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. The method utilized involved the exogenous application of physiologic, very weak magnetic fields to the brain by Sandyk, Anninos, Derpapas and Tsagas. The magnetic device produced a magnetic field ranging from about 5 x 10(-8) to about 2.5 x 10(-7) Gauss (G) at frequencies of 2-7 Hz. The wave form was sinusoidal and the device was positioned about the posterior portion of the corpus callosum most specifically to influence the pineal gland. Direct correlation of melatonin production with magnetic field stimulation was found. In most cases, the neurological conditions showed amelioration or palliation over an extended period of time. It seemed that resonance was established between the magnetic field and melatonin which could be explained with Jacobson Resonance. These studies begin to point to the explanation of the mechanism of interaction between non-ionizing EM radiation and biological systems. Also, evaluation of the pineal gland as an magneto-sensitive gland may help us understand fundamental conditions in magneto-receptors of biological systems in terms of their piezoelectric nature. Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial PMID: 7603740, UI: 95327372

Jacobson JI, Yamanashi WS (1994) A possible, physical mechanism in the treatment of neurologic disorders with externally applied pico Tesla magnetic fields. Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR 26(4):287-297. Institute of Theoretical Physics and Advanced Studies for Biological Research, Jupiter, FL 33477. The clinical studies describing the treatment of some neurological disorders with an externally applied picoTesla (10(-12) Tesla, or 10(-8) Gauss) magnetic field are considered from a physical view point. An equation relating the intrinsic (or "rest") energy of a charted particle of mass m with its energy of interaction in an externally applied magnetic field B is presented. The equation is proposed to represent an initial basic physical interaction as a part of a more complex biological mechanism to explain the therapeutic effects of externally applied magnetic fields in these and other neurologic disorders. Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial PMID: 7700979, UI: 95215493

Kanje M, Rusovan A, Sisken B, Lundborg G (1993) Pretreatment of rats with pulsed EMFs enhances regeneration of the sciatic nerve. Bioelectromagnetics 14(4):353-359. Dept of Animal Physiology, Univ of Lund, Sweden. Regeneration of the sciatic nerve was studied in rats pretreated in a PEMF. The rats were exposed between a pair of Helmholtz coils at a pulse repetition rate of 2 pps at a field density of 60 or 300 uT. The PEMF treatment was then discontinued. After an interval of recovery, regeneration of the sciatic nerve was initiated by a crush lesion. Regeneration of sensory fibers was measured by the "pinch test" after an additional 3-6 d. A variety of PEMF pretreatments including 4 h/d for 1-4 d or exposure for 15 m/d during 2 d resulted in an increased regeneration distance, measured 3 d after the crush lesion. This effect was found even after a 14-d recovery period. In contrast, pretreatment for 4 h/d for 2 d at 60 uT did not affect the regeneration distance. PEMF pretreatment conditioned the rat sciatic nerve in a manner similar to that which occurs after a crush lesion, which shows that PEMF affects the neuronal cell body. However, the mechanism of this effect remains obscure. PMID: 8216387, UI: 94030101

Maccabee PJ, Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Cracco JB, Eberle L, Rudell A (1991) Stimulation of the human nervous system using the magnetic coil. J Clin Neurophysiol Jan;8(1):38-55. Dept of Neurology, State Univ of New York, Brooklyn 11203. The magnetic coil (MC) is a unique probe that can be used to elucidate basic neurophysiological mechanisms in humans. Either by excitation or inhibition of responding neural elements, we have been able to investigate: (1) the distribution of the electric field induced within isotropic and anisotropic volume conductors by round and figure-8 MCs; (2) the theoretical relationship between electric field distribution and excitation of distal peripheral nerve, nerve root, cranial nerve, and motor cortex; (3) the effect of focal MC stimulation of motor and visual systems; (4) perturbation of sequential digit movements by MC stimulation of human premotor cortex; (5) activation of frontal motor areas related to speech; (6) elicitation of a sense of movement in an ischemic paralyzed limb by focal MC cortical stimulation; and (7) the effect of stimulation of the human visual system to (a) suppress and unmask visual perception using single MC stimuli and (b) prolong visual suppression using short trains of MC stimuli. In the future, prolongation of MC action by using repetitive stimuli should be useful in further investigating functions concerned with language, speech, and cognition. Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial PMID: 2019650, UI: 91210411

Meissl G (1979) [Nerve regeneration by means of the effect of an intermittent EMF: Experimental study on a rabbit - Article in German]. Handchirurgie 11(1):31-35. An experiment on healing of transected nerves of rabbits was carried out. Under microsurgical techniques continuity of the nerve was reestablished by end-to-end coaptation without creating a defect, so only the elasticity of the nerve tissue had to be overcome, and by nerve grafting. In both cases treatment with intermittent high frequency magnetic field was applied continuously. Histologic studies revealed that the scar at the suture site matured more quickly than usually and that distal to the site of transection the normal calibre of regenerated axons was reached within a shorter time than previously. PMID: 393577, UI: 80113931

Mix E, Jenssen HL, Lehmitz R, Lakner K, Hitzschke B, Richter M, Heydenreich A (1990) [Effect of pulsating EMF therapy on cell volume and phagocytosis activity in multiple sclerosis and migraine - Article in German]. Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz) Aug;42(8):457-466. Neurologische Abteilung, Universitat Rostock. PEMF treatment was studied in 10 patients with multiple sclerosis and 10 patients with migraine. In both patients' groups a single treatment induced a significant rise of yeast particle uptake by blood granulocytes. The % of phagocytizing cells was increased in migraine patients only. In both groups 20 PEMF treatments caused a reduction of particle uptake, whereas the % of phagocytizing cells remained unchanged. In migraine patients the opsonic capacity of serum and the mean cell volume of erythrocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes were initially reduced, but increased during the course of 20 PEMF treatments. The biphasic changes of cell volume and phagocytic activity are interpreted as a result of counter-regulation of the organism in response to the primary PEMF effect. PMID: 2247525, UI: 91062477

Nikulin MA, Gonchar NV, Klocheva EG (1989) [Reaction of the autonomic nervous system of children to a magnetic field - Article in Russian]. Pediatriia 9:59-62. Infrared thermography was used to study some reactions of the body to the action of magnetic field on parameters of the functions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and changes in the white blood cell counts in 20 normal children and 20 patients aged 6-15 yr suffering from chronic gastroduodenal diseases. Changes in infrared radiation on the surface of the anterior abdominal wall in the patients mirrored the adequacy of the compensatory reactions of the ANS to the action of the magnetic field. Parameters of ANS function, mainly sympathetic, indicate the effect of the magnetic field on the patient's body. PMID: 2587171, UI: 90067762

Orgel MG, O'Brien WJ, Murray HM (1984) Pulsing EMF therapy in nerve regeneration: an experimental study in the cat. Plast Reconstr Surg Feb;73(2):173-183. A multidisciplinary approach to the study of peripheral nerve regeneration in the cat has been presented. The purpose of this work has been to determine if PEMF therapy can enhance peripheral nerve regeneration after injury. In equal groups of animals, two types of PEMF treatment were compared with untreated controls. All animals underwent quantitative electrophysiologic and morphologic assessment at the area of injury. Also, muscle fiber sizing in the periphery and retrograde labeling of anterior horn motoneurons with horseradish peroxidase were studied. There were no statistical differences between the groups in electrophysiologic or morphologic parameters. However, in animals treated with a pulse-burst EMF there was a statistically significant improvement in the labeling and localization of anterior horn cells in the CNS. Pulse-burst EM radiation can increase the numbers of motor neurons that reestablish appropriate connections to the periphery after nerve injury. It remains to be seen if this improved spinal cord organization can translate to improved peripheral functional return. PMID: 6695016, UI: 84119896

Ossenkopp KP, Cain DP (1991) Inhibitory effects of powerline-frequency (60-Hz) magnetic fields on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and mortality in rats. Behav Brain Res Aug 29;44(2):211-216. Dept of Psychology, Univ of Western Ontario, London, Canada. The possibility that exposure to powerline frequency (60-Hz) magnetic fields might affect the form or intensity of epileptic seizures, induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) in rats, was examined. Male adult rats were exposed to either 60-Hz magnetic fields with intensities of up to 1.85 Gauss (185 uT) or to a sham field condition, for 1 h before injections of PTZ (45-75 mg/kg). The subsequent seizures were monitored and recorded on videotape and any subsequent mortalities were noted. Exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields before giving PTZ was found to significantly (p<.005) reduce the lethality of the drug-induced seizures. The LD50 for the sham-exposed group was 65.88 mg/kg, whereas for the 60-Hz magnetic field-exposed rats, the LD50 was 85.33 mg/kg. In some experiments exposure to the 1.0 and 1.5 Gauss magnetic fields also produced significant (p<.05) reductions in seizure durations. Acute exposure to low intensity 60-Hz magnetic fields had an inhibitory effect on the lethality and expression of PTZ-induced seizures in rats. Some possible mechanisms, which could account for these effects of magnetic field exposure on seizures, are discussed. PMID: 1751012, UI: 92088503

Raji AM (1984) An experimental study of the effects of pulsed EMF (Diapulse) on nerve repair. J Hand Surg [Br] Jun;9(2):105-112. This study investigates the effects of a PEMF (Diapulse) on experimentally divided and sutured common peroneal nerves in rats. Evidence is presented that PEMF accelerates recovery of use of the injured limb and enhances regeneration of damaged nerves. PMID: 6747406, UI: 84266450

Sandyk R (1995) Reversal of alexia in multiple sclerosis by weak EMFs. Int J Neurosci Nov;83(1-2):69-79. NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA. The occurrence of cognitive deficits in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been known since 1877 when Charcot noted "enfeeblement of memory" in his patients. Cognitive deficits have been reported in almost 50% of patients with a relapsing-remitting course and in a significantly higher % of patients with a chronic progressive course leading to intellectual disability which is often severe enough to preclude employment. MS is considered a form of subcortical dementia and the occurrence of classical cortical disorders such as aphasia, agnosia and apraxia is reported to be rare in the disease. However, in my experience alexia, a reading impairment unrelated to visual acuity or visual field defects, is common in patients with MS. Recently, I reported that treatment with picotesla range EMFs is an efficacious modality in the management of both the motor and cognitive symptoms of MS. 3 patients with MS who developed alexia as a manifestation of the disease are presented. In all patients the alexia was reversed several months after they began treatment with EMFs. Since alexia usually reflects a disconnection syndrome whereby lesions involving the left visual cortex and the splenium of the corpus callosum disconnect language association areas from visual association areas, it is suggested that reversal of the alexia in these patients by EMFs was related to improved interhemispheric transcallosal transmission of visual information. Also, changes in the metabolism of monoamines, which are involved in visual information processing and reading comprehension, may have been important in causing reversal of the alexia. This report further supports the unique efficacy of this treatment modality in reversing specific cognitive deficits in MS. Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial PMID: 8746750, UI: 96357640

Sandyk R (1996) Treatment with EMF alters the clinical course of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a case report. Int J Neurosci Nov;88(1-2):75-82. NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA. It is estimated that 10-20% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a chronic progressive (CP) course characterized by an insidious of neurological deficits followed by steady progression of disability in the absence of symptomatic remission. No therapeutic modality has shown specific efficacy in the treatment of patients with CP MS and there are no data to show that any pharmacologic or other modality alters the clinical course of CP MS. Treatment with picotesla EMFs is a highly effective modality for the symptomatic management of MS including the chronic progressive form. Also, this treatment also seems to alter the natural course of the disease in CP patients. A 36 yr-old man experienced, at the age of 31, insidious weakness in the legs and several months later developed difficulties with balance with ataxia of gait. His gait abnormality progressed slowly over the following years and at the age of 35 he was severely disabled with spastic paraparesis and ataxia using a rolling walker for ambulation and a scooter for longer distances. In particular, his disability had progressed rapidly over the 6 mo preceding the initiation of treatment with EMFs. He as classified have CP MS and his prognosis was considered extremely unfavorable due to the degree of cerebellar and pyramidal tract involvement and the rapid course of deterioration. In July 1995 the patient began experimental treatment with EMFs. While receiving 3 treatment sessions/wk for 12 mo he experienced improvement in cerebellar functions such as gait, balance and tremor as well as bowel and bladder functions, mood, sleep and cognitive function and resolution of diplopia, blurring of vision, dysarthria, paresthesias in the hands, and fatigue. Most remarkably, there was no further progression of the disease during the course of magnetic therapy. This case showed that EMF-treatment reversed the clinical course of CP MS in addition to producing symptomatic improvement. PMID: 9003966, UI: 97157687

Sandyk R, Anninos PA (1992) Attenuation of epilepsy with application of external magnetic fields: a case report. Int J Neurosci Sep;66(1-2):75-85. Democrition Univ of Thrace, Dept of Med Physics, Alexandroupolis, Greece. We found earlier that magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain measurements in patients with seizure disorders show significant MEG activity often in the absence of conventional EEG abnormalities. We localized foci of seizure activity using the mapping technique characterized by the ISO-Spectral Amplitude (ISO-SA) on the scalp distribution of specified spectral components or frequency bands of the emitted MEG Fourier power spectrum. Also, using an electronic device, we utilized the above recorded activity to emit back the same intensity and frequency of magnetic field to the presumed epileptic foci. Using this method we were able, over the past 2.5 yr, successfully to attenuate seizure activity in a cohort of over 150 patients with various forms of epilepsy. We present a patient with severe epilepsy and behavioral disturbances in whom application of an external artificial magnetic field of low intensity produced a substantial attenuation of seizure frequency which coincided with an improvement in the patient's behavior. Artificial magnetic treatment may be a valuable adjunctive procedure in the management of epilepsy. PMID: 1304572, UI: 93279926

Sandyk R, Anninos PA, Tsagas N (1991) Magnetic fields and seasonality of affective illness: implications for therapy. Int J Neurosci Jun;58(3-4):261-267. Dept of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Med/Montefiore Med Ctr, Bronx, NY 10461. Seasonal affective disorder is characterized by recurrent winter depression associated with hypersomnia, overeating, and carbohydrate craving. The severe form of winter depression affects about 5% of the general population and is believed to be caused by light deficiency. About 70%-80% of patients with winter depression experience attenuation of symptoms when exposed to bright light therapy. Hypotheses pertaining to the pathogenesis of winter depression implicate the effects of light on different characteristics of circadian rhythms. In addition to light, the geomagnetic field is an environmental factor which may be implicated in the pathophysiology of winter depression. There is strong indication that the pineal gland is a magnetosensitive system and that changes in the ambient magnetic field alter melatonin secretion and synchronize the circadian rhythms. In man, shielding of the ambient magnetic field significantly desynchronizes circadian rhythms which could be gradually resynchronized after application of magnetic fields. The strength of the environmental magnetic field diminishes during the winter months, leading to increased susceptibility for desynchronization of circadian rhythms. Thus, since the acute application of magnetic fields in experimental animals resembles that of acute exposure to light with respect to melatonin secretion (it suppresses melatonin secretion), magnetic treatment might be beneficial for patients with winter depression. Also, since the environmental light and magnetic fields, which undergo diurnal and seasonal variations, influence the activity of the pineal gland, we propose that a synergistic effect of light and magnetic therapy in patients with winter depression would be more physiological and, therefore, superior to phototherapy alone. Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial PMID: 1365047, UI: 95088073

Tkach EV, Abilova AN, Gazalieva ShM (1989) [Characteristics of the effect of a constant EMF on reparative processes in spinal cord injuries - Article in Russian]. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr 89(5):41-44. In 171 white rats the spinal cord was completely sectioned in the upper thoracic region. In 46 control rats an early crude spinal cord scar was identified which precluded the growth of nerve fibers. On the contrary, in animals exposed to constant magnetic field a smooth spinal cord scar was found with collaterals of anterior spinal arteria, recrease of the destruction zone and nervous fiber growth across the scar, This resulted in restored hind paw motility by 56+4.8% as related to control rats in which motility did not restore. Magnet therapy applied as a part in combined restitutional therapy in 104 patients in early restitution period yielded a 46.15+4.89% to 76.32+4.87% increase in the rate of restoration of motor and sensory functions. With the therapy applied in late periods, the restitution was 48.1+5.6% and 78.1+3.9%, respectively. The magnetic field is considered as a reparation booster in spinal cord trauma applicable in any stage of the disease. PMID: 2781918, UI: 89389617

Wallace MC, Tator CH, Gentles WM (1987) Effect of alternating current stimulation of the spinal cord on recovery from acute spinal cord injury in rats. Surg Neurol Oct;28(4):269-276. The therapeutic value of electrical stimulation of the spinal cord was studied in rats injured by acute compression of the spinal cord. 20 adult Wistar rats underwent cord compression at T6-7 by the extradural clip compression technique at a force of 125 g for 1 m. After injury and group randomization, stimulating electrodes were placed extradurally, proximal and distal to the injury site, and attached to a small, implantable receiver-stimulator. The receiver was secured to the paraspinal muscles and implanted subcutaneously, overlying the thoracic spine. The animals were maintained in specially designed cages with encircling antennae attached to radio frequency transmitters. The 10 treatment animals were subjected to a 460-kHz PEMF, pulsed at a frequency of 10 Hz. The receivers converted the pulsed radio frequency into square-wave pulses at the cord electrodes (width 1 ms, frequency 10 Hz). The 10 control animals were exposed to a similar field but with a frequency below the range of the tuned receiver, and therefore they did not receive the square-wave pulse. Clinical recovery was assessed by the inclined plane technique which measures the maximum angle of inclination attained without falling. After 15 wk of continuous spinal cord stimulation, the inclined plane performance was not significantly different between the two groups (treatment group mean, 44.4+5.4; control group mean, 41.7+7.9). This is the first experimental study of the effect of long-term continuous electrical stimulation on spinal cord recovery in mammals. The methods required and the technical aspects involved in achieving continuous stimulation, and the guidelines for future study of this modality are discussed. PMID: 3498231, UI: 87320075

Wilson DH, Jagadeesh P (1976) Experimental regeneration in peripheral nerves and the spinal cord in lab animals exposed to a pulsed EMF. Paraplegia May;14(1):12-20. Peripheral nerve section and suture was performed in 132 rats. Postoperatively 50% of the rats were exposed to a PEMF daily and 50% were kept as controls. Nerve conduction studies, histology and nerve fibre counts all showed an increased rate of regeneration in EMF-treated rats. Preliminary results from a similar controlled study of spinal cord regeneration after hemicordotomy in cats show that PEMF therapy had induced nerve fibre regeneration across the region of the scar in cats killed 3 mo after the hemicordotomy. PMID: 180476, UI: 76221416

Zienowicz RJ, Thomas BA, Kurtz WH, Orgel MG (1991) A multivariate approach to the treatment of peripheral nerve transection injury: the role of EMF therapy. Plast Reconstr Surg Jan;87(1):122-129. Univ of Massachusetts Med School, Berkshire Med Ctr, Pittsfield. A multivariate approach to the treatment of peripheral nerve transection injury has been used in rats. Phase 1, a pilot study, (48 rats, 8 groups) examined variables associated with the method and timing of surgical repair, the arrest of wallerian degeneration, and the role of PEMF therapy in functional recovery. Phase 2 (90 rats, 6 groups) then studied the timing and duration of PEMF therapy as the only variable in larger groups of rats. Phase 1 showed that a vein-graft conduit did not improve functional recovery compared with standard epineurial repair. Also, delayed repair compared favorably with immediate repair. The use of chlorpromazine to inhibit the toxic effects of calcium influx seemed to enhance early functional recovery, and the combination of delayed nerve repair and PEMF therapy seemed to consistently improve function. Phase 2 gave the first published evidence for statistically improved ambulation in animals treated with delayed surgical repair and prolonged PEMF therapy. We postulate that future treatment of nerve transection injuries will involve a combined treatment regimen consisting of the immediate arrest of wallerian degeneration, delayed surgery, and PEMF therapy. PMID: 1984256, UI: 91074893