Electromagnetic Field Therapies: A Bibliography from Medline

Phil Rogers MVB MRCVS
1, Esker Lawns, Lucan, Dublin, Ireland
e-mail : philrogers@tinet.ie

6. Soft tissues
(Limbs; Head; Gums; Ear, Nose,
Throat, Eye; Ligaments, Tendons)

6a. Limbs; Head; Gums; Ear, Nose, Throat, Eye

Chelidze LN, Zhgenti TG, Devdariani ES, Nishnianidze KA, Khomeriki RV (1980) [Use of an EMF for treating parodontosis - Article in Russian]. Stomatologiia (Mosk) Mar;59(2):91-92. PMID: 6929615, UI: 80192688

Fischer G, Sametz W, Juan H (1987) [Effect of an alternating magnetic field on the development of carrageenan paw edema in the rat - Article in German]. Med Klin Aug 21;82(17):566-570. PMID: 3657730, UI: 88013665

Kal'met'ev GG, Ivanova TS, Kiiko IuI (1978) [Experimental corneal wound healing under the effect of continuous magnetic field - Article in Russian]. Vestn Oftalmol May;3:34-37. PMID: 685020, UI: 78251781

Mix E, Jenssen HL, Lehmitz R, Lakner K, Hitzschke B, Richter M, Heydenreich A (1990) [Effect of pulsating EMF therapy on cell volume and phagocytosis activity in multiple sclerosis and migraine - Article in German]. Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz) Aug;42(8):457-466. Neurologische Abteilung, Universitat Rostock. PEMF treatment was studied in 10 patients with multiple sclerosis and 10 patients with migraine. In both patients' groups a single treatment induced a significant rise of yeast particle uptake by blood granulocytes. The % of phagocytizing cells was increased in migraine patients only. In both groups 20 PEMF treatments caused a reduction of particle uptake, whereas the % of phagocytizing cells remained unchanged. In migraine patients the opsonic capacity of serum and the mean cell volume of erythrocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes were initially reduced, but increased during the course of 20 PEMF treatments. The biphasic changes of cell volume and phagocytic activity are interpreted as a result of counter-regulation of the organism in response to the primary PEMF effect. PMID: 2247525, UI: 91062477

Mizushima Y, Akaoka I, Nishida Y (1975) Effects of magnetic field on inflammation. Experientia Dec 15;31(12):1411-1412. The effects of a 50 Hz magnetic field on experimentally-induced inflammation in rats were studied. Carrageenan edema was inhibited significantly by exposure to magnetic field for 3 h. Adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was also suppressed by the magnetic field. PMID: 1213056, UI: 76118038

Ozinkovskii VV (1980) [Use of a low-frequency pulsing EMF in treating inflammatory diseases of the ENT organs - Article in Russian]. Zh Ushn Nos Gorl Bolezn May;3:51-53. PMID: 7385978, UI: 80216160

Sherman RA, Robson L, Marden LA (1998) Initial exploration of pulsing EMFs for treatment of migraine. Headache Mar;38(3):208-213. Service of Orthopedic Surgery, Madigan Army Med Ctr, Tacoma, Wash. 98431, USA. In 2 studies, 23 patients with chronic migraine were exposed to PEMFs over the inner thigh. In an open study, 11 subjects kept a 2-wk headache log before and after 2-3 wk of exposure to PEMFs for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk. The number of headaches/wk decreased from 4.03 during the baseline period to 0.43 during the initial 2-wk follow-up period and to 0.14 during the extended follow-up which averaged 8.1 mo. In a double-blind study, 9 subjects kept a 3-wk log of headache activity and were randomly assigned to receive 2 wk of real or placebo PEMF exposures as described above. They were subsequently switched to 2 wk of the other mode, after which they kept a final 3-wk log. 3 additional subjects in the blind study inadvertently received half-power PEMF exposures. The 6 subjects exposed to the actual device first showed a change in headache activity from 3.32/wk to 0.58/wk. The 3 subjects exposed to only half the dose showed no change in headache activity. Large controlled studies should be performed to determine whether this intervention is actually effective. Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial PMID: 9563212, UI: 98224316

Shlygin VV, Arnautov LN, Maksimov GV (1993) [A possible mechanism for treating retinal dystrophy with an EMF - Article in Russian]. Biofizika May;38(3):507-510. A mathematical model is proposed to explain how electromagnetic treatment can restore vision in retinal dystrophy induced by pathology of receptive cells. Possible relationship between the treatment efficiency and dystrophy localization is shown. PMID: 8512960, UI: 93291210

Skripka VK (1981) [Results of the use of magnetic field in ophthalmology - Article in Russian]. Oftalmol Zh 36(6):321-325. PMID: 7312260, UI: 82081265

Steffensen B, Caffesse RG, Hanks CT, Avery JK, Wright N (1988) Clinical effects of electromagnetic stimulation as an adjunct to periodontal therapy. J Periodontol Jan;59(1):46-52. Dept of Periodontics, Univ of Michigan, School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor 49109. The clinical effects of EM stimulation (EMS) on periodontal soft tissues and alveolar bone level were studied among 23 patients. The sides of the arch to receive EMS were randomly selected and exposed for a period of 8 wk after periodontal surgery. The contralateral control sides received surgery only. The EM signal was a multiple pulse signal with 21 asymmetrical quasirectangular pulses/burst and a burst frequency of 16.9 Hz. The peak magnetic field strength reached 0.46 Gauss. Changes from baseline in clinical attachment level, probing depth, and radiographic alveolar bone level were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 mo postsurgically. A greater gain of clinical attachment level after EMS was seen only for pockets with initial depth of 1 to 3 mm. There were no consistent differences between test (EMS) and control sides in the change of clinical attachment level or probing depth for pockets deeper than 4 mm. Radiographically, the test sides showed statistically significant gain of alveolar bone level compared with the control sides at 6 mo after surgery. Hereafter, the rates of change were similar in the stimulated and unstimulated sides, and the total gain of alveolar bone level remained greater in the test side throughout the observation period. Within the limitations of this study, EM stimulation did not promote gains in clinical attachment or alveolar bone level to the extent that it can be recommended as an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy. Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial PMID: 3422292, UI: 88118199

Sultanov MIu, Iskenderov GF, Tagi-zade NS, Seidbekov OS (1992) [Our experience with the complex treatment of phlegmon of the lacrimal sac - Article in Russian]. Vestn Oftalmol May;108(3):16-18. 89 patients with lacrimal sac phlegmons, 76 women and 13 men, aged 16 to 78, were given multiple-modality treatment, consisting in Group 1 (43 patients) of traditional methods, such as UHF therapy, antibiotics, sulfonamides, symptomatic therapy, dacryocystorhinostomy after complete cessation of inflammation, and in group 2 (46 patients) including sessions of intermittent magnetic field (IMF) exposure, antibiotics, and early dacryocystorhinostomy. Sparing technique was used in all operations, carried out under local anesthesia with 2% procaine or trimecaine. IMF exposure was an effective therapeutic means characterized by antiinflammatory, resolving, and analgesic effects. IMF sessions and early dacryocystorhinostomy enhance cessation of inflammation and improve the treatment efficacy: remote results of surgery were excellent in 80% of Group 1 patients and in 90.9% of Group 2 patients. IMF exposure halved the terms of medical and social rehabilitation of patients with lacrimal sac phlegmons. PMID: 1481321, UI: 93127383

Todorov N, Ignatova B, Stojanova O (1983) [Application of low-frequency impulse magnetic field and Phytodont in the treatment of patients with hemorrhagic periodontosis - Article in Bulgarian]. Stomatologiia (Sofiia) Nov;65(6):20-24. PMID: 6334380, UI: 85066632

Tsisel'skii IuV (1990) [The effect of a pulsed EMF on ocular hydrodynamics in open-angle glaucoma - Article in Russian]. Oftalmol Zh 2:89-92. The influence of PEMF on ocular hydrodynamics in open-angle glaucoma was studied in 150 patients (283 eyes) with latent, initial and advanced glaucoma using the method and the device of the Filatov Institute. Impulse frequency was 50 Hz, duration 0.02 s, pulse form rectangular, rate of pulse rise 4/10(-4) s, rate of magnetic induction rise 2/10(-4) mT/s, amplitude value of magnetic induction at the pulse level 8.0-8.5 mT. The procedure was for 7 m, for 10 sessions. PEMF improved ocular hydrodynamics in open-angle glaucoma. It raised aqueous outflow and production, and reduced the Becker's coefficient. Outflow was normalized in 25, 18 and 17% of cases at the latent stage, initial stage and advanced stage, respectively. PEMF is recommended as part of complex treatment of open-angle glaucoma. PMID: 2280950, UI: 91125806

Tsisel'skii IuV, Kashintseva LT, Skrinnik AV (1990) [The effect of a pulsed EMF on the hemodynamics of eyes with glaucoma - Article in Russian]. Oftalmol Zh 3:154-157. The influence of PEMF on ocular hydrodynamics in open-angle glaucoma was studied in 150 patients (283 eyes) with latent, initial and advanced glaucoma using the method and the device of the Filatov Institute. Impulse frequency was 50 Hz, duration 0.02 s, pulse form rectangular, rate of pulse rise 4/10(-4) s, rate of magnetic induction rise 2/10(-4) mT/s, amplitude value of magnetic induction at the pulse level 8.0-8.5 mT. The procedure was for 7 m, for 10 sessions. PEMF improved ocular hydrodynamics in open-angle glaucoma. Rheographic coefficient and relative volume pulse rose in 88 and 82%, respectively. The degree of the rise and restoration frequency of rheographic values of the glaucomatous eye under the influence of PEMF to the age norm was more obvious in latent and initial glaucoma. PMID: 2255478, UI: 91074480

Vainshtein ES, Zobina LV, Gurtovaia EE (1981) [Alternating magnetic field in the treatment of various eye diseases of vascular etiology - Article in Russian]. Oftalmol Zh 36(6):325-328. PMID: 7312261, UI: 82081266

Verzin AA, Kolesnikova LN (1981) [Changes in ocular hydrodynamic indices in exposure to a permanent magnetic field - Article in Russian]. Vestn Oftalmol Jan;1:13-15. PMID: 7222343, UI: 81178476

Zaikova MV, Gorkunov ES, Koshevoi VP, Perevoznikova PP, Venevtseva EN (1981) [Use of continuous magnetic field of magnetoelasts in ophthalmological practice - Article in Russian]. Oftalmol Zh 36(6):328-331. PMID: 7312262, UI: 82081267

Zaslavskii AIu, Markarov GS, Markarova IS, Loskutov IA, Gelis IuS, Tarutin NP (1996) [Ophthalmologic electromagnetic stimulator OFTEMAGS - Article in Russian]. Med Tekh Sep;5:43-45. They describe the design and specifications of an OFTEMAGS ophthalmological EM stimulator, its new therapeutic factor (the pulse low-frequency field combined with a static magnetic field). A procedure for treating eye diseases and recommendations how to use the therapeutic factor in ophthalmology are given. PMID: 8992189, UI: 97098985

6b. Ligaments, tendons

Binder A, Parr G, Hazleman B, Fitton-Jackson S (1984) Pulsed EMF therapy of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis: A double-blind controlled assessment. Lancet Mar 31;1(8379):695-698. The value of PEMF for the treatment of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis was tested in a double-blind controlled study in 29 patients whose symptoms were refractory to steroid injection and other conventional conservative measures. The treated group (15 patients) had a significant benefit compared with the control group (14 patients) during the first 4 wk of the study, when the control group received a placebo. In the second 4 wk, when all patients were on active coils, no significant differences were noted between the groups. This lack of difference persisted over the third phase, when neither group received any treatment for 8 wk. At the end of the study 19 (65%) of the 29 patients were symptomless and 5 others much improved. PEMF therapy may thus be useful in the treatment of severe and persistent rotator cuff and possibly other chronic tendon lesions. Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial PMID: 6143039, UI: 84166793

Chard MD, Hazleman BL (1988) Pulsed EMF treatment of chronic lateral humeral epicondylitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol Jul;6(3):330-332. Publication Types: Letter PMID: 3180555, UI: 89029346

Currier DP, Ray JM, Nyland J, Rooney JG, Noteboom JT, Kellogg R (1993) Effects of electrical and electromagnetic stimulation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther Apr;17(4):177-184. Division of Physical Therapy, Univ of Kentucky Med Ctr, Lexington 40536-0079. A need exists to develop new methods of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) that are both effective and relatively pain-free. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effects of both NMES and a new method of EM (NMES/PEMF) stimulation for reducing girth loss and for reducing pain and muscle weakness of the knee extensor muscles in patients during the first 6 wk after reconstructive surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). 17 patients receiving ACL reconstructive surgery participated as a control group (N=3), as an NMES group (N=7), and with combined NMES and magnetic field stimulation (NMES/PEMF) (N=7). Patients receiving NMES/PEMF rated each type of stimulation for perceived pain and were measured for their torque. Torque results revealed a mean decrease of 13.1% for NMES/PEMF patients. The mean% of thigh girth decreased 8.3% for controls, 0.5% for NMES, and 2.3% for NMES/PEMF patients. The NMES/PEMF patients rated NMES as causing about twice the pain intensity as NMES/PEMF during treatments. Both NMES and NMES/PEMF were effective in reducing girth loss and that NMES/PEMF was less painful than NMES alone in treating patients after ACL reconstruction. PMID: 8467342, UI: 93222888

Devereaux MD, Hazleman BL, Thomas PP (1985) Chronic lateral humeral epicondylitis: a double-blind controlled assessment of pulsed EMF therapy. Clin Exp Rheumatol Oct;3(4):333-336. PEMFs are beneficial in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinitis. As lateral humeral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a similar chronic tendon lesion, 30 patients with both clinical and thermographic evidence of tennis elbow were randomly allocated to receive either active or inactive PEMF therapy. Treatment was continued for a minimum period of 8 wk. At this time there was no statistical difference between the two groups. Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial PMID: 4085165, UI: 86106969

Lin Y, Nishimura R, Nozaki K, Sasaki N, Kadosawa T, Goto N, Date M, Takeuchi A (1992) Effects of pulsing EMFs on the ligament healing in rabbits. J Vet Med Sci Oct;54(5):1017-1022. Dept of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Agriculture, Univ of Tokyo, Japan. Effects of PEMFs on ligament healing were investigated using 80 rabbits. All animals received square resection (4 x 4 mm) of both patellar ligaments in full thickness at their center. They were divided into 4 groups of 20 rabbits each and stimulated with different EM intensity of 0 (control), 2, 10, and 50 Gauss (G) for 6 hr daily. Pulse frequency and pulse width were 10 Hz and 25 us, respectively. After PEMF stimulations for 1, 2, 3 and 4 wk, 5 animals of each group were euthanized. The regenerated tissue at the lesion was studied histologically and biomechanically. PEMF-stimulated tissue showed an earlier increase in capillaries and fibroblasts and more matured, prominent longitudinal orientation of collagen fibers than those of control groups. Among the rabbits given EM stimulation, those stimulated at 50 G revealed the earliest ligament healing. Tensile strength of regenerated ligament tissues of any PEMFs groups increased significantly at 1 and 2 wk after operation, however, at 3 and 4 wk after operation, there were no significant differences between groups. Among these values, those of 50 G group were the highest consistently during most of the experimental period. PEMFs enhanced the earlier stage of ligament healings and 50 G seemed to be the most effective among the 3 field intensities used. This promoting effect may potentiate the earlier recovery of the function after the ligament injury. PMID: 1420550, UI: 93042251

Watkins JP, Auer JA, Morgan SJ, Gay S (1985) Healing of surgically created defects in the equine superficial digital flexor tendon: effects of pulsing EMF therapy on collagen-type transformation and tissue morphologic reorganization. Am J Vet Res Oct;46(10):2097-2103. The effect of PEMF therapy on the healing of surgically created defects in equine superficial digital flexor tendons was evaluated. Defects were created in both front superficial digital flexor tendons of 20 horses. The defect in 1 limb was exposed to a PEMF for 2 h daily. The other limb served as a control. Histologic and immunofluorescent evaluations were done in horse killed at postsurgical wk 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24. Therapy with the PEMF significantly (p<.05) delayed the maturation of the tissue formed within the defect at postsurgical wk 8 and 12, as determined by histologic examination. The collagen-type transformation was also delayed by the PEMF therapy, but to a degree that was not significant. PMID: 4062013, UI: 86048823