Electromagnetic Field Therapies: A Bibliography from Medline

Phil Rogers MVB MRCVS
1, Esker Lawns, Lucan, Dublin, Ireland
e-mail : philrogers@tinet.ie

7. Cancer, oncology; Immunity and Protection against Radioactivity; Liver, Gallbladder

7a. Cancer, oncology

Bakhmutskii NG, Golubtsov VI, Pyleva TA, Sinitskii DA, Frolov VE (1991) [A case of successful treatment of a patient with breast cancer using rotational EMF - Article in Russian]. Sov Med 8:86-87. PMID: 1763376, UI: 92108485

Bellossi A (1986) The effect of a static non-uniform magnetic field on mice: A study of Lewis tumour graft. Radiat Environ Biophys 25(3):231-234. PMID: 3797631, UI: 87092947

Bellossi A, Desplaces A (1991) Effect of a 9 mT pulsed magnetic field on C3H/Bi female mice with mammary carcinoma: A comparison between the 12 Hz and the 460 Hz frequencies. In Vivo Jan;5(1):39-40. Laboratoire de Biophysique, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes, France. In a previous experiment, the exposure of tumoral C3H/Bi female mice to a 9 mT, 460 Hz pulsed magnetic field led to an increase in the length of survival in the late period of the disease; this might be due to a hampered metastatic process. In the present study 27 controls and 52 exposed mice were treated with the same protocol (a 10-m exposure, 3 non-consecutive d/wk, from 2-3 wk after the tumors appeared until death) but with a 12 Hz PMF. In this experiment the 12 Hz PMF seemed to increase length of survival times in the early period of the disease. PMID: 1932623, UI: 92032693

Heller R, Jaroszeski M, Perrott R, Messina J, Gilbert R (1997) Effective treatment of B16 melanoma by direct delivery of bleomycin using electrochemotherapy. Melanoma Res Feb;7(1):10-18. Dept of Pathology, Univ of South Florida, Tampa 33612-4799, USA. rheller@coml.med.edu.usf Electrochemotherapy (ECT), chemotherapy given in combination with electric fields, has the potential to be an effective localized treatment for cutaneous malignancies. Bleomycin's cytotoxicity was enhanced by exposing tumour cells to electrical fields after iv injection of the chemotherapeutic agent. Two issues associated with this procedure are the existence of a narrow but optimal time-window for effective treatment and the fact that a systemic drug dose is given for a localized therapy. In order to address these issues, a study was initiated to examine the effectiveness of bleomycin by intratumoural injection. A dose-response relationship for intratumoural injection was determined. Also, the minimal effective field strength necessary for ECT was established. ECT-treatment drastically reduced tumour volume. Also, ECT-treated groups had increased survival over control groups. The minimum effective dose for the ECT intratumour bleomycin group was 0.025 units. The minimum effective field strength was found to be 1250 V/cm. Intratumoural injection of bleomycin in combination with electric pulses was effective, and this information will be used to initiate clinical trials. PMID: 9067960, UI: 97220798

Iur'ev VN, Krasnogorskaia NV (1980) [Effect of fluctuating EMFs on the processes of growth and blastomogenesis - Article in Russian]. Biull Eksp Biol Med Nov;90(11):602-605. Rats were exposed to low-frequency EMF, adequate to the natural background, with Gaussian energy distribution, spectrum width 15 kHz, and field intensity 5 V/cm. Electric fluctuations had an inhibitory action on the normal growth of the animals and on blastoma development. This action reached maximum with the greatest build-up gradient. As the frequency band of the field of action increased, the inhibitory effect declined. PMID: 7004528, UI: 81087329

Lopatin VF, Dedenkov AN (1979) [Effect of UHF frequency on the growth of sarcoma 180 - Article in Russian]. Vopr Onkol 25(8):75-77. Studies on mice sarcoma 180 transplanted sc showed that the UHF-field of non-thermogenic intensity in multiple (5-10 fold) total irradiation inhibits the tumor growth (T=60%) and produces a 1.5 times increase of an average survival in tumor-bearing animals. There may be a direct relationship between the increased antiblastic function of the body and a stimulating effect of the UHF-field on the immune response in animals. PMID: 483705, UI: 80015878

Nordenstrom BE (1994) Electrostatic field interference with cellular and tissue function, leading to dissolution of metastases that enhances the effect of chemotherapy. Eur J Surg Suppl 574:121-135. Dept of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Institute and Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial PMID: 7531014, UI: 95143556

Pasquinelli P, Petrini M, Mattii L, Galimberti S, Saviozzi M, Malvaldi G (1993) Biological effects of PEMF (pulsing EMF): an attempt to modify cell resistance to anticancer agents. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol Oct;12(4):193-197. CRESAM, Pisa, Italy. PEMF effects modify the multidrug resistance (MDR) of cells in vitro and in vivo. The murine leukemic doxorubicin-resistant cell line, P388/Dx, subjected to PEMF irradiation in vitro, showed a significant difference in thymidine incorporation when the concentration of doxorubicin reached a level of 1 ug/mL, which corresponds to the inhibition dose 50 (ID50). The human lymphoblastic leukemia vinblastine-resistant cell line, CEM/VLB100, also showed a significant modification under the same experimental conditions at the in vitro ID50 corresponding to a vinblastine concentration of 100 ng/mL. BDF1 mice transplanted with P388/Dx cells also lived longer when doxorubicin was injected ip in fractionated doses, while being subjected to PEMF irradiation. PMID: 8189374, UI: 94246562

Salvatore JR, Blackinton D, Polk C, Mehta S (1994) Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation: a study of carcinogenic and cancer treatment potential. Rev Environ Health Jul;10(3-4):197-207. Division of Hematology/Oncology, Roger Williams Cancer Ctr, Providence, RI, USA. Non-ionizing EM radiation (NIEMR), particularly the magnetic field component, has been implicated in the development of human neoplasia. Research suggests that if these fields are part of the carcinogenic pathway, they may act to promote or progress established cancer. Active progression of cancer cells by NIEMR negate the possible early detection of clinically silent neoplasms. A low-frequency non-ionizing magnetic field did not stimulate growth of an established breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. The same magnetic field has been used as an adjuvant to anti-neoplastic chemotherapeutic agents. A low frequency magnetic field increased neoplastic cell kill by antineoplastic chemotherapy. Non-ionizing EM radiation may be involved in carcinogenesis but the answer to this question awaits further studies. We are exploring new methods of cancer treatment using non-ionizing EM radiation. Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial PMID: 7724878, UI: 95241838

Xin YL, Liu D (1994) Electrostatic therapy (EST) of lung cancer and pulmonary metastasis: report of 15 cases. Eur J Surg Suppl 574:91-92. Dept of Thoracic Surgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing. 15 patients with primary lung cancer or pulmonary metastases were treated with electrostatic therapy (EST). The patients were treated with either low voltage (200-1200 V), high voltage (500-2500 V), or high voltage together with high magnetic field. At 6 mo after EST, tumour regression occurred in 2 cases, relief of symptoms, but no change in tumour size, in 5 cases, and no effect of EST in 9 patients. No marked effect of EST for treatment of cancer was seen. Publication Types: Clinical trial PMID: 7531032, UI: 95143574

7b. Immunity; Protection against Radioactivity

Prokopenko LG, Siplivaia LE (1992) [The immunomodulating properties of erythrocytes induced by physical factors - Article in Russian]. Nauchnye Doki Vyss Shkoly Biol Nauki 9:70-78. The action of ultraviolet rays (UVR) or magnetic field (MF) on the erythrocytes of intact Wistar rats by weight 140-170 g stimulated an immune response in sheep's T-dependent antigen-erythrocytes and on bull serum albumin in allogenic transference. The most expressed immune stimulated effect was induced by the heavy erythrocytes, which were effected by magnetic field. Warming and vibration did not induce the immunomodulating characteristics in erythrocytes. By spleen cells sticking to glass, the modified UVR and MF, the heavy erythrocytes induced factors (differentiated in mass), which stimulated the development of immune response to T-dependent antigens of sheep's erythrocytes and of bull serum albumin. These factors depress the function of antigen-specific T-suppressors and induce the immune-suppressive characteristics in light erythrocytes. PMID: 1302530, UI: 93257535

Shishlo MA, Nikulina LA, Kirichenko NB (1984) [Effect of a low-frequency alternating magnetic field on the course of pyrogenal-induced fever - Article in Russian]. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult Sep;5:54-55. PMID: 6506567, UI: 85067550

Stashkov AM (1998) [Radioprotective effect of weak ultra-low frequency alternating magnetic field in adrenalectomized mice - Article in Russian]. Radiats Biol Radioecol Jan;38(1):110-115. Simferopol State Univ, Krym, Ukraine. PMID: 9606412, UI: 98269257

Stashkov AM, Gorokhov IE (1998) [Modification of radiosensitivity of mice by combination of alternating magnetic field and fractionated irradiation with small daily doses over many days - Article in Russian]. Radiats Biol Radioecol Jan;38(1):116-120. Simferopol State Univ, Krym, Ukraine. Everyday before radiation combination of weak magnetic field and fractioned radioactive irradiation in dose of 0.5 Gy up to total doses of 6.0-8.0 Gy increased surviving of mice by 34-53% and prolonged the life-time by 50%. It also decreased the rate of accumulation of damaged systems, extended average time of death and the value of dose changing factor, and reduced the gradient of damaged systems. PMID: 9606413, UI: 98269258

7c. Liver and gallbladder

Grigorian EG, Asatrian AB, Martirosian ES, Sarkisian RA, Voskanian MR, Malerian DS, Kazarian NK (1990) [Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of alternating low-frequency magnetic field in chronic cholecystitis - Article in Russian]. Sov Med 7:72-74. PMID: 2251570, UI: 91068093

Filimonov RM, Spakhov KV, Ruzova TK, Kontareva MI, Olenev NV, Zaniko OO (1996) [The action of an ultrahigh-frequency EMF (460 MHz) in patients with a history of viral hepatitis in the early convalescence period - Article in Russian]. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult Sep;5:18-19. PMID: 9036658, UI: 97141053

Filimonov RM, Spakhov KV, Ruzova TK (1997) [The rehabilitation of patients with a history of viral hepatitis using UHF therapy (460 MHz) - Article in Russian]. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult Nov;6:26-28. In early convalescence after viral hepatitis C the liver region of the patients was exposed to the decimetric waves to prevent transformation of the acute disease into a chronic one. A total of 45 relevant patients were exposed to EMF of ultrahigh frequency (460 MHz). A positive effect on the disease course and liver function was noted. PMID: 9484027, UI: 98145021

Kents VV, Mavrodii VM (1995) [Decimeter-wave physiotherapy in viral hepatitis - Article in Russian]. Lik Sprava Sep;9-12:140-144. Effectiveness was evaluated of magnetotherapy, inductothermy, UNF electric field and EM waves of decimetric wave band (460 MHz) on the projection of the liver, adrenals and thyroid gland in controlled trials enrolling a total of 835 patients with viral hepatitis (type A, B, associated forms). Optimum effectiveness of decimetric field on the projection of the adrenals and thyroid gland can be achieved through the application of minimum power and everyday alternation of exposures. As many as 69% of the patients derive benefit from the above treatment. PMID: 8983757, UI: 96378155

Mikaelian NP, Stupin IV, Il'ina EI (1990) [Correction of metabolic disorders by magnetic-laser irradiation - Article in Russian]. Khirurgiia (Mosk) Oct;10:86-89. Effects of magnetic-laser irradiation on some metabolic changes was studied in a model of hepatic insufficiency caused by obstructive jaundice in a series of 5 trials in Wistar rats (200-250 g). The laser used semiconductors, emitting in the infrared range at 800-900 nm; it also had with a static magnetic field. The region of the liver was irradiated through an intact epilated skin. Intensification of LPO processes and diminution of antioxidant defence which leads, in turn, to reduction of the insulin-receptor interrelations and sharp decrease of hepatic cell metabolism, play a definite role in the pathogenesis of hepatic insufficiency. PMID: 2283760, UI: 91132850

Shimanko II, Limarev VM (1993) [The magneto-laser effect on liver functions in the complex treatment of hepatorenal failure - Article in Russian]. Anesteziol Reanimatol Sep;5:49-51. Complex therapy of acute hepatorenal failure included magnetic field and laser applied to hepatic area and blood extracorporeally. In 26 patients magnetic field and laser were applied to the hepatic area. When compared to a control group of 30 patients a more prompt decrease in blood bilirubin was noted, alongside with a drop in blood fibrinogen, which enhanced a threat of profuse bleeding. There was no decrease in blood fibrinogen or an accelerated drop in bilirubin during extracorporeal application of the technique in 23 patients, as compared to a control group of 20 patients. As the technique has different effects on the liver it should be used with care and only when clinically indicated in patients with acute hepatorenal failure. PMID: 8116903, UI: 94161314

Temur'iants NA, Evstaf'eva EV, Makeev VB (1985) [Correction of lipid metabolism in rats with limited mobility by an alternating magnetic field of infra-low frequency - Article in Russian]. Biofizika Mar;30(2):313-316. The effect of changing magnetic field at the frequency of 8 Hz and intensity at 4.1 A/M on rats lipid metabolism state in the exposition of continuous hypokinesia was investigated. It was found that changing magnetic field of such parameters greatly restricted the development of hyperlipidemia of rats with a low level of mobile activity. PMID: 3986233, UI: 85175202