Philip A.M. Rogers MRCVS

AP Analgesia


Agarwal_P; Kumar A (1995) Clinicophysiological Effects of EAP Analgesia of Limbs in Dogs. Indian J of Animal Sci Feb 65(2):149-152. RVC Ctr & Sch, Meerut 250401, Uttar Pradesh, India. EAP at GV20, ST40, BL60, GB40, LI04 and SP04 produced complete desensitization of hip joint, lateral aspect of hip, thigh, stifle joint and proximal part of leg of pelvic limb. EAP at GV20, LU10, TH05, PC06, LI11 and Tianping produced complete desensitization of shoulder girdle, elbow joint and arm of thoracic limb. Analgesia began in 20.1+0.45 min and recovery occurred in 12.7+0.22 min after termination of EAP. EAP caused a significant increase in heart rate, nonsignificant increase in respiration and rectal temperature up to 60 min. Mean arterial blood pressure, ECG and acid-base status did not change significantly after EAP.

Bihari_A4; Kumar A (1995) Physiological and Clinical Effects of EAP Analgesia of Limbs in Goats. Indian Vet J May 72(5):485-489. Coll Vet Sci, Dept Surg & Radiol, Pantnagar 263145, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Bihari_A5; Kumar A (1996) Haemocytological and Biochemical Effects of EAP-Analgesia of Limbs in Goats. Indian J Anim Sci Apr 66(4):318-321. Vet Hosp, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. Total erythrocytes, leucocytes, PCV and neutrophils increased significantly after EAP of PC06, TH08, GB20 and Tianping, plus LU01, LI04, or LU10, LI11 for forelimb AP-analgesia (APA); and GB40, LI04, GV20 and Tianping, plus BL49 and SP06 or BL60 and SP04 for hindlimb APA. EAP of these points caused a significant increase in total protein, globulin and glucose, and decrease in albumin level with no significant change in urea nitrogen, cholesterol, creatinine, Na, K, chloride and enzymes: alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. These significant haemocytological and biochemical parameters returned to pre-stimulation level by 24-48 h. No adverse effect on metabolic profile was seen. No significant changes in haemocytology and biochemistry was seen between various groups of animals after Electro-APA of the fore- and hind- limbs.

Guagliumi_L (1991) [Orthopaedic surgery of the foot under AP hypo-analgesia with electric stimulation: Critical analysis and re-evaluation]. Minerva Anaestesiol Sep 57(9):484-486. Servizio di Anestesia e Rianimazione, Istituto Ortopedico G. Pini, Milano, Italy.

Lin_JG1; Chen XH; Han JS (1992) Antinociception produced by 2 and 5 KHz peripheral stimulation in the rat. Int J Neurosci May-Jun 64(1-4):15-22. AP Research Centre, China Med Coll, Taichung, ROC. Recently a "medium frequency" electric stimulator (LIKON) was marketed, which delivers 2000-5000 Hz square waves and was claimed to induce strong clinical analgesia. The aim of this study was to clarify whether electric stimulation over 1000 Hz would induce any antinociception in the rat. Tail flick latency (TFL) was taken as the nociceptive index. EAP was applied via needles at ST36 and SP06 on both hind legs. TFL increased significantly.

Oda_H; Fujitani Y (1990) Concentric electrodes for producing AP-like anaesthetic effects. Tohoku J Exp Med Mar 160(3):169-175. Dept of Physiol, Tottori Univ Sch of Med, Yonago, Japan. We designed concentric electrodes composed of a centre electrode and an outer ring electrode. Electrostimulation with 2 sets of such electrodes for 15 min as conditioning stimuli was given to the left hand of 35 adult subjects to induce AP-like analgesic effects. The effects immediately after the conditioning were compared between stimulation through a pair of centre electrodes alone at 3 Hz (conditioning 1) and simultaneous stimulation of 3 Hz through a pair of centre electrodes and 100 Hz through a pair of outer ring electrodes (conditioning 2). In conditioning 2, modulating effects of 100 Hz stimuli through a pair of outer ring electrodes made it possible to increase the voltage strength of 3 Hz stimuli through a pair of centre electrodes with maintaining the minimum perception of pricking sensation. Muscle twitching did not accompany either of the conditioning procedures. The respective stimulating current thresholds for faint touch sensation and also for pricking sensation at the right forearm were elevated significantly more by conditioning 2 (1.54 and 1.40 times) than by conditioning 1 (1.20 and 1.14 times).

Rieb_L; Pomeranz B (1992) Alterations in electrical pain thresholds by use of AP-like TENS in pain-free subjects. Phys Ther Sep 72(9):658-667. Dept of Physiol, Univ of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. AP-like TENS (ALTENS) was compared with a placebo treatment in altering acute electrical pain thresholds. 10 pain-free subjects underwent, on different days, an acclimatization session, an ALTENS treatment, and a placebo treatment in a cross-over design. Electrical sensation and pain thresholds were measured from the tip of the index finger bilaterally at 15-min intervals twice before, once during, and 3 times after a 30-min treatment session. The ALTENS treatment was given at 4 Hz at an intensity just below pain threshold delivered to AP points in the hand and wrist. The placebo treatment was similarly delivered, except that the intensity of stimulation was just above sensation threshold. Neither the ALTENS treatment nor the placebo treatment produced a significant change in pain threshold. There was no correlation between initial pain threshold and change in pain threshold. Implications for the modulation of pain are discussed.