Philip A.M. Rogers MRCVS

AP and the Cardiovascular System


Akhmedov_TI1; Vasil'ev IuM; Romanov DA (1991) [Criteria of the efficacy of AP and psychotherapy in hypertension patients]. Vrach Delo Aug 8:100-101. In Russian.

Akhmedov_TI2; Vasil'ev IuM; Masliaeva LV (1993) The haemodynamic and neurohumoral correlates of the changes in the status of hypertension patients under the influence of AP. Terapevticheskii Arkhiv 65(12):22-24. In Russian. AP with silver needles in Ear and Body zones with additional effects of AP zones in microneedle pressing produced a hypotensive action in 360 patients with initial essential hypertension. This effect, in 82% of patients, was not the only positive response; there was also a fall in hyperkinetic Syndrome with a significant fall in energy consumption, reduction in circadian excretion of adrenaline, inhibition in the activity of plasma renin and normalization of lipid metabolism. The hypotensive effect in most patients persisted for 12 mo. Hyperactivity of plasma renin, hypokinetic and extremely hyperkinetic haemodynamic types set limitations for the method efficacy.

Berus_AV; Gaponiuk PIa; Iotova VG; Shmal' OV; Stolbikov AE (1993) [Regularities of the effect of AP on EEG and haemodynamic parameters as a function of the initial type of circulation in hypertensive patients]. Fiziol Cheloveka May-Jun 19(3):36-46.

Bobkova_AS; Gaponiuk PIa; Korovkina EG; Sherkovina TIu; Leonova MV (1991) [The effect of AP on endocrine regulation in hypertensive patients]. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult Jan-Feb 1:29-32. Stage I-II essential hypertension subjects (n=35, aged 25-63 yr) were examined after the 1st and 10th session of AP to clarify the effect of a single session and a course of AP treatment on blood ACTH, STH, TTH, beta-End, neurotensin, thyroxine, aldosterone, cortisol and plasma renin activity. The hormonal spectrum was determined by RIA using special kits. The blood was obtained before AP, 5 min after introduction of the needles, immediately and 30 min after their removal. AP-related decline of arterial pressure occurred in participation of pituitary and adrenal hormones as well as polypeptides beta-End and neurotensin.

Feng_GM; Xing DJ; Sun QX (1994) [Effects of AP on blood pressure, SOD, LPO and five kinds of trace elements to stenosis of renal artery caused hypertensionin rats]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih Dec 14(12):739-741. Third Teaching Hospital, Norman Bethune Univ of Med Sciences, Changchun. Changes of blood pressure, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and level of 5 kinds of trace elements including Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, Mg were observed before or after AP treatment in the stenosis of renal artery caused hypertension in rats [correction of mice]. AP at ST36, PC06, SP06 and KI01 in mice reduced blood pressure significantly and influenced the levels of SOD, LPO and 5 kinds of trace elements in the stenosis of renal artery caused hypertension in mice. Possible mechanisms of AP in reducing blood pressure and influencing the changes of SOD, LPO and 5 kinds of trace elements were discussed.

Gao_M; Xu W; Chen W; He L (1994) Involvement of mu opioid receptors of periaqueductal grey (PAG) in AP inhibition of noxious blood pressure response in rabbits. AETRIJ Jun-Sep; 19(2-3):81-88. Dept of Neurobiology, Shanghai Med Univ, PRC. Strong electric shock stimulation of the rabbit front paw elicited a pressor blood pressure response regarded as noxious response. Ligands of mu opioid receptors were microinjected into the PAG to observe their effects on AP inhibition of the pressor response. Ohmefentanyl (OMF), a mu-agonist, significantly attenuated the pressor response. Mu-antagonist TCTAP greatly enhanced the pressor response. EAP significantly inhibited the pressor response, the inhibition being readily reversed by TCTAP. The response after TCTAP was significantly greater than that of the control before EAP. Noxious stimulation activated PAG mu-opioid receptors to modulate the noxious response and EAP enhanced that activation.

Gaponiuk_PIa; Leonova MV; Iotova VG (1991) [The AP stimulation of the hand points in hypertension patients with different types of blood circulation]. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult Mar-Apr 2:44-46.

Huang_HQ; Liang SZ (1991) Improvement of blood pressure and left cardiac function in patients with hypertension by Ear-AP. Chung Hsi i Chieh Ho Tsa Chih - Chin J of Modern Developments in Trad Med Nov 11(11):654-656, 643-644. Hubei Coll of TCM, Wuhan, PRC. [The same study was published in 1992 also: Huang H; Liang S (1992) AP at Earpoint HT to treat vascular hypertension. Chung i tsa chih (JTCM) Jun, 12(2):133-136]. They observed 30 patients with hypertension, in which blood pressure was lowered by needling of Earpoint HT. The short-term hypotensive effects of needling Earpoint HT, versus Earpoint ST, were compared. Earpoint ST was not effective as an hypotensive point. Earpoint HT had a marked hypotensive effect, whose effect rate was 100% in the short-term and 63% in the longer-term. It had a marked effect of left myocardial function, with stage 2 and 3 of hypertension, which was improved by HT point. The point had no effect on left cardiac function of normal subjects. [Abstract of 1992 text: The immediate, short-term and long-term depressor effects, the immediate effects on cardiac functions in type 2 and 3 vascular hypertension, and the effects on angiotensin 2 in grade 3 vascular hypertension by AP at Earpoint HT were studied in 30 cases of vascular hypertensive patients. The immediate depressor effect of AP at Earpoint ST was also recorded for comparison. AP at Earpoint HT gave marked immediate depressor effect (short-term effective rate 100%; longer-term effective rate 63%), as well as immediate effects on myocardial functional activities in type 2 and 3 hypertension and marked effects on angiotensin 2 in grade 3 hypertension. AP at Earpoint ST had no depressor effect on vascular hypertension].

Jin_YX; Fu Q; Guo XQ (1992) Effects of EAP of ST36 on high blood pressure and blood hyperviscosity in stress rats. J Tongji Med Univ 12(4):209-215. Dept of Physiology, Shanghai Med Univ, PRC. Elevation of blood pressure (BP) and blood viscosity (BV) was induced in unanesthetized Wistar rats by fixing and hanging. EAP of ST36 or icv microinjection of GABA (60 ug/10 uL) lowered the high BP and BV induced by fixed-hanging, which was blocked by a microinjection of GABA receptor antagonist bicuculline (60 ug/10 uL). The depressant effect of EAP on high BP and blood hyperviscosity induced by fixed-hanging may be mediated by the activation of GABA receptors in the brain.

Ku_YH; Zou CJ (1993) Tinggong (SI19), a novel AP point for 2Hz EAP-induced depressor response. AETRIJ Apr-Jun 18(2):89-96. Dept of Physiology, Beijing Med Univ, PRC. In urethane-anaesthetized, tubocurarine-immobilized and artificially ventilated rats, 2 Hz (3 V) EAP at bilateral SI19 + LI11 induced a depressor (hypotensive) response, while 10 Hz-EAP, and 2 Hz-EAP to other sets of AP points (LI04 + LI11, or LV03 + LI11) did not. Pretreatment, with either phentolamine, propranolol or methyl atropine iv, markedly reduced the depressor response, indicating that the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve, the cardiac sympathetic nerve and cardiac vagal nerve all are involved in the hypotensive response.

Ku_YH; Zou CJ (1993) Beta-endorphinergic neurons in nucleus arcuatus and nucleus tractus solitarii mediated depressor-bradycardia effect of 2 Hz EAP at "Tinggong" (SI19). Dept of Physiology, Beijing Med Univ, PRC. AETRIJ Jul-Dec 18(3-4):175-184. We found previously that the RVL mediates the depressor bradycardia response (DpB) to the excitation of beta-endorphinergic neurons in AR or NTS. Now, CNS mechanisms underlying the DpB effect of 2 Hz-EAP (EAP-DpB) at SI19 were analyzed: 1.        Brain transection caudal to nucleus arcuatus (AR) or procaine preinjection into bilateral AR blocked the EAP-DpB; 2.        Preinjection of naloxone into bilateral nucleus paraventricularis reversed the EAP-DpB, but beta-End antiserum had no significant effect on the EAP-DpB; 3.        Preinjection of procaine into the nucleus commissuraris (the caudal NTS), also blocked the EAP-DpB; 4.        Preinjection of naloxone or beta-End antiserum into bilateral rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) attenuated or reversed the EAP-DpB. EAP-DpB is mediated by the beta-endorphinergic projections from the AR and NTS to RVL; the mechanism underlying the reverse of the EAP-DpB by naloxone injection into nucleus paraventricularis was discussed.

Lee_HS; Kim JY (1994) Effects of AP on blood pressure and plasma renin activity in two-kidney one clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats. AJCM 22(3-4):215-219. Dept of Physiology, Wonkwang Univ, Coll of Oriental Med, Iri city, Korea. Shixuan (A 01) are Strange Extra-Channel Points on the tips of each finger. These AP points have long been used to treat cardiovascular disease. Alterations in the renin-angiotensin system are considered as the pathophysiological basis of the origin and/or maintenance of hypertension. Activation of the plasma or tissue renin-angiotensin system may be one cause of hypertension. This study examined the effects of AP on blood pressure and plasma renin activity. AP was applied at A 01 of two-kidney one clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats. Both systolic blood pressure and plasma renin activity fell significantly after AP at A 01. In the sham-operated and control rats, the procedure influenced the parameters without significant changes. The suppressive haemodynamic effect of AP at A 01 was related to changes in plasma renin activity.

Liu_ZCo1 (1990) [Regulatory effects of AP and moxibustion on simple obesity complicated with hypertension]. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih Sep 10(9):522-525, 515. Nanjing Coll of TCM, PRC. AP and moxibustion is one of the important therapies in TCM for treating obesity. The authors have treated 41 simple obese patients complicated with hypertension by AP and moxibustion, with good results. In the treated group, a total effective rate was 88% (36 cases). For the purpose of understanding regulatory effect of AP and moxibustion, the authors have observed the obesity indices, the lipid indices (TC, TG, VLDL-C, TC/HDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and AI), the physiological indices (saliva secretion, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure and temperature) and the energy metabolism indices (BMR) in the simple obese complicated with hypertension before and after the AP and moxibustion. The therapeutic effect of AP and moxibustion was good. They helped to regulate overeating, blood pressure, indexes of the ANS, lipid level and energy metabolism.

Ohsawa_H; Okada K; Nishijo K; Sato Y (1995) Neural mechanism of depressor responses of arterial pressure elicited by AP-like stimulation to a hindlimb in anaesthetized rats. J Auton Nerv Syst 20 Jan 51(1):27-35. Lab of Physiology, Tsukuba Coll of Technology, Japan. The effects of AP-like stimulation of a hindlimb on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RNA) as well as mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were examined in anaesthetized rats. An AP needle (diameter of 160 um) was inserted into the skin of a hindlimb and underlying muscles to a depth of 5 mm and was twisted at circa 1 Hz. Under deep anaesthetic condition, in circa 70% of trials, AP-like stimulation for 60 s induced a decrease in MAP which was accompanied by a decrease in RNA. AP-like stimulation applied to the muscles alone, but not to the skin alone, induced inhibition of RNA and MAP. Transection of sciatic and femoral nerves ipsilateral to the hindlimb stimulation completely abolished the responses of RNA and MAP. The hindlimb stimulation excited the femoral and common peroneal afferent nerves. In spinalized animals, the hindlimb stimulation did not produce any changes in RNA and MAP. The decrease in MAP induced by AP-like stimulation of a hindlimb is a reflex response. The afferent pathway is composed of hindlimb muscle afferents while the efferent pathway is composed of sympathetic vasoconstrictors including the renal nerves. Endogenous opioids may not be involved in the present reflex, because an iv injection of naloxone, an antagonist of the opioid receptors, did not influence the reflex.

Radzievskii_SA; Fisenko LA; Lebedeva OD (1991) The effect of AP on the haemodynamics and tolerance for physical loads in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii i Lechebnoi Fizicheskoi Kultury Mar-Apr(2):303. In Russian. Discontinuation of chemotherapy substituted for a course of AP and EAP in 124 patients with CHD, essential hypertension and neurocirculatory dystonia gave a positive response of cerebral and peripheral haemodynamics, myocardial contractility and diastolic function. Myocardial hypertrophy regressed, exercise tolerance enhanced. Reflex activation of stress-limiting systems arresting excess adrenergic action on circulation probably causes these phenomena.

Williams_T; Mueller K; Cornwall MW (1991) Effect of AP-point stimulation on diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects: a preliminary study. Physical Therapy Jul 71(7):523-529. Havasu Samaritan Regional Hospital, Lake Havasu City, AZ 86403. EAP of 4 specific antihypertensive AP points (LV03, ST36, LI11, and the Groove behind the ear for Lowering Blood Pressure) was examined in order to determine the effect of this stimulation on diastolic blood pressure in 10 subjects with diastolic hypertension. Subjects were assigned at random to 2 groups: 1=EAP at the antihypertensive points; 2=Sham-EAP (electrostimulation of non-AP-point areas). Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed an immediate and significant reduction of diastolic blood pressure for the EAP v Sham-EAP group poststimulation. More research is needed to see if there are other AP points, stimulation characteristics, or modalities that can enhance the hypotensive effect of EAP, and whether that effect can last for a clinically significant time.

Zhou_Y; Chen Q; Hou Z; Chen Y (1993) Experimental research on treatment of hypertension with AP. JTCM Dec 13(4):277-280. Inst of AP and Moxibustion, Anhui Coll of TCM, Hefei, PRC. The effects of AP on blood pressure, microcirculation of bulbar conjunctiva and haemorheology in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) were observed. The mechanism of AP to lower blood pressure is discussed from the viewpoint of microcirculation and haemorheology. SHRs and Wistar rats of both sexes weighing circa 250g were assigned to 3 groups: 1=Xie AP in SHRs (n=15) at LI11, LV03, LI04 and ST36 twice/d for 15 d, with the needle retained for 15 min and the reducing method used for twisting and twirling; 2=Control SHRs (Untreated, n=10); 3=Control Normal Wistar rats (n=10). All rats in groups 2 and 3 were treated in the same way as in Group 1 except for the AP. The blood microcirculation and morphology of the bulbar conjunctiva in SHRs were obviously abnormal: capillaries with blood flow were reduced in number, the arterioles were spastic and of smaller diameter, the venules were dilated due to blood stasis which had a slow granular blood flow, blood viscosity was increased, haematocrit increased, and the time for RBC electrophoresis prolonged. The blood was in a state of high viscosity, high concentration and high aggregation. AP treatment reduced blood pressure, and remarkably improved the morphology, blood microcirculation and haemorheology of the bulbar conjunctiva of spontaneously hypertensive rats.