Philip A.M. Rogers MRCVS

Acupuncture (AP) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) RESEARCH ON THE AP POINTS

Cho_SH; Chun SI (1994) The basal electrical skin resistance of AP points in normal subjects. Yonsei Med J Dec 35(4):464-474. Dept of Rehab Med, Yonsei Univ Coll of Med, Seoul, Korea. The inhibitory component of the skin against given electrical current, also called as the electrical skin resistance, is subject to change in response to many factors, especially pain. In order to find out more definite relationship between pain and skin resistance, one should measure in the state devoid of any external disturbing stimuli to get the "basal skin resistance (BSR)", which is different from point to point on the body surface. Also, "active points" have more consistent BSR characters than other points and most share same locations with "AP points" which are easy to localize accurately and repeatedly in normal subjects. Therefore, the comparison of BSR of certain AP points of normal subject and pain-suffering subjects is expected to be able to figure out any pain-induced BSR changes. In 10 normal subjects, measurement at 16 AP points (8 asymmetrical pairs) showed inconsistent asymmetrical distribution of the BSR values with significant order among themselves, including left SP06 at their lowest position. However, neither the measuring system itself nor any of the 16 points was statistically reliable enough for diagnostic purposes. So the measuring device needs to be improved and more AP points need to be explored to complete our pain-related BSR map. Also, research is needed on the meaning of the above BSR distribution pattern.

Comunetti_A; Laage S; Schiessl N; Kistler A (1995) Characterisation of human skin conductance at AP points. Experientia Apr 51(4):328-331. Pharma Clinical Research, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel, Switzerland. Some physicians use the electrical conductance of the skin, particularly at the AP points, for diagnostic purposes. This paper deals with the quantification of the skin conductance at some AP points under well defined conditions using the electrode materials gold, graphite, silver and brass. The observed current response appeared to be best described by 2 exponentials.

Wu_CC1; Jong SB (1990) [Radionuclide study of AP points]. Kao Hsiung I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Tsa Chih Dec 6(12):678-686. Dept of Nuclear Med, Kaohsiung Med Coll, Taiwan, ROC. Channel theory is an important part of TCM. Channel research, using radionuclides, has given several significant findings: 1. By sc injection (SC) of Tc-99m pertechnetate at AP points KI03 and BL60, it was found that certain AP points may be closely related to the venous drainage. 2. A new technique of radionuclide venography, namely SC-RNV of the lower limbs, was established through the above study. The SC-RNV subsequently proved to be clinically available in diagnosis of DVT and calf varicose veins. By SC injection of Tc-99m pertechnetate at various AP points (APP) and non-AP points (non-APP) it seemed that not every APP is closely related to venous drainage, and so is not the non-APP. As for the mechanism of SC-RNV, through SC injection of T1-201 chloride and Ga-67 citrate at KI03 respectively, it was found that the Na-K pumping system may play a major role in the drainage of soft tissue fluid from the APP into th venous flow. We now continue to investigate the Channel with radionuclide and hope to understand more clearly the physiological function of the APP, especially its relationship with the veins.

Wu_CC2; Jong SB; Lin CC; Chen MF; Chen JR; Chung C (1990) Subcutaneous injection of 99mTc pertechnetate at AP points KI03 and BL60. Radioisotopes Jun 39(6):261-263. Dept of Nuclear Med, Sch of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Med Coll, ROC. AP points are anatomically related to the nerves and vessels but the physiological role of blood vessels in the formation of AP points remains unknown. This study used injection of 99mTc pertechnetate sc at KI03 and BL60 and also into the points themselves. With injection into the points, a lower-limb venography like what was obtained by iv injection of 99mTc macroaggregated albumin was found. Some AP points may play a role in drainage of tissue fluid from soft tissue into the veins.

Wu_CC3; Chen MF; Lin CC (1994) Absorption of sc injection of Tc-99m pertechnetate via AP points and non-AP points. AJCM 22(2):111-118. Dept of Nuclear Med, Tainan Municipal Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC. SC-RNV, a new method of radionuclide venography by sc injection of Tc-99m pertechnetate at AP points KI03, was developed in our Lab. To further investigate whether KI03 is the best point for SC-RNV, Tc-99m pertechnetate was sc injected at KI03 on one foot and at one of the 11 other AP points or 3 non-AP points (NAPs) on the opposite foot, simultaneously, in 157 subjects without evidence of venous disorder. The absorption of radioisotopes from each injection site was evaluated by analysing the time-activity curve at a region of interest set upon over the lower leg above the injection site. The absorption of radioisotopes via KI03 was better than that via NAPs, evidenced by higher peak activity and greater absorption rate. However, there was no significant difference between KI03 injection and other AP point injections except LV02 and LV03. Absorption of radioisotopes via APs was better than via NAPs. This together with the fact that KI03 is easier to detect than other APs in feet, suggests that KI03 is a good point for SC-RNV.