Philip A.M. Rogers MRCVS

AP and Immunity


Bihari_A1; Kumar A; Garg SK (1995) Enhancement of Antibody Production by EAP in Goats Immunized with Salmonella Typhimurium. Indian J of Animal Sci Jan 65(1):6-8. Vet Hosp, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. EAP stimulation at ST36, SP06, LI04 and GV14 in goats (group A), or GB39, SP10, LI11 and LV03 (group B) caused a significant increase in antibody titre from 1:7.5 (control) to 1: 22.5 and 1:20, respectively, against Salmonella O antigen at d 5 postinoculation. The antibody titre gradually increased, respectively, to 1:1440 and 1:1120 at d 14 against 1:320 of controls. Thereafter it declined to 1:120, 1:90 and 1:15, respectively, by d 30. There was no significant difference in antibody titre between two groups of AP-stimulated animals.

Cui_M (1992) Present status of research abroad concerning the effect of AP and moxibustion on immunologic functions. JTCM Sep 12(3):211-219. Inst of Information and Library, China Acad of TCM, Beijing. Japan is one of the countries that have done extensive research on the effect of AP and moxibustion on the immunologic functions. With China first, Japan ranks 2nd among the countries in this study. Concerning research in this field concerned the level abroad can scarcely reach that in China. Scholars abroad fail to base their research on TCM theory. Also not only the type of diseases studied, and the indexes observed are far less than those in China, but also the scope of their research is far narrower. However, certain diseases under study (for instance, AIDS) and certain indexes under observation (for instance, analysis of changes in T subsets of lymphocytes with monoclonal antibodies), as well as certain aspects of their investigation are worthy of consideration by scholars in China.

Fujiwara_R; Tong ZG; Matsuoka H; Shibata H; Iwamoto M; Yokoyama MM (1991) Effects of AP on immune response in mice. Int J Neurosci Mar 57(1-2):141-150. Dept of Immunol and Anaesthesiol, Kurume Univ Sch of Med, Fukuoka, Japan. The effect of AP points stimulation on the induction of plaque-forming cells (PFC) in spleen cells of BALB/c mice was investigated in vivo and in vitro tests. In in vivo experiment, mice were immunized with 2 x 10(8) sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the PFC was markedly increased by daily (once/d for 4 d) AP stimulation. The enhancement of PFC by AP was completely blocked by preadministration of procaine, hexamethonium, naloxone, propranolol, but not by phentolamine. The enhancement of PFC by AP was also observed in spleen cells of non-immunized mice when spleen cells of the AP-treated mice were cultured with SRB in vitro. Enhancement of PFC in spleen was observed after stimulation with AP, and a similar effect was also found in bone marrow cells of normal mice, but not in thymic cells. The spleen cells of mice given AP showed no enhancement of PFC after treatment with anti-Thy 1.2 antibody and complement. Also, these helper T cells were found to be not restricted by the H-2 gene complex. The helper T cells induced by AP lacked H-2 restriction; thus they may be derived from the bone marrow, but not from the thymus. AP activation of the sympathetic nervous system activated helper T cells (probably from bone marrow).

Hu_G; Chen H; Hou Y; He J; Cheng Z; Wang R (1993) A study on the clinical effect and immunological mechanism to treat Hashimoto's thyroiditis by moxibustion. Chung i tsa chih (JTCM) Mar 13(1):14-18. Shanghai Res Inst of AP & Channels, PRC. 71 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were treated by moxibustion; immune function and thyroid function were studied. Moxibustion reduced thyroid antibodies in peripheral blood of patients with hypothyroidism and restored their thyroid function. Moxibustion lowered thyroid antibody secretory levels and FROMCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) activities of lymphocytes. Also, the action of moxibustion in reducing the secretion of thyroid antibodies was related to its action of regulating the proportions of T lymphocyte subsets. Success of moxibustion to treat Hashimoto's thyroiditis is probably due to its effect in regulating the relationship among subsets of T lymphocytes.

Hu_GS; Chen HP; Hou YJ (1991) [Effect of moxibustion on the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity in peripheral blood of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis]. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih Jul 11(7):403-404, 388. Shanghai Research Inst of AP and Channel, PRC. To investigate the immune regulating effect of moxibustion on the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 35 patients were treated by moxibustion and the changes of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in the peripheral blood of the patients and their relationship with thyroid microsomal antibody (MCA) before and after treatment were observed. The activity of ADCC and the combining rate of MCA were higher than normal and they were closely related to each other. After treatment, both of them declined remarkably and the relationship between them remained the same. The efficacy of moxibustion to treat Hashimoto's thyroiditis may be related to its effect of decreasing the activity of ADCC and the titre of anti-thyroid antibodies.

imm_Bianchi_M; Jotti E; Sacerdote P; Panerai AE (1991) Traditional AP increases the level of beta-End in immune cells and influences mitogen induced proliferation. AJCM 19(2):101-104. Dept Pharmacol, Univ of Milano, Niguarda Ca Granda Hospital, Italy. We measured beta-End levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in patient who underwent treatment with traditional AP. Traditional AP increased both the levels of the opioid in the immune cells and lymphocyte proliferation. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that traditional AP modulates immune responses in man.

Kho_HG; Van Egmond J; Eijk RJ; Kapteyns WM (1991) Lack of influence of AP and transcutaneous stimulation on the immunoglobulin levels and leucocyte counts after upper-abdominal surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol Jan 8(1):39-45. Inst for Anaesthesiol, Univ of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. The changes in immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM) and total and differential leucocyte counts in the peripheral blood during, and for 6 d after, surgery were evaluated in 29 male patients submitted to standardized upper-abdominal surgery performed under 2 different anaesthetic techniques. Group 1 received stimulation of ear and paravertebral points, supplemented by small doses of fentanyl (mean 1.2 ug/kg, range 0.0-5.7) and Group 2 received moderate-dose fentanyl (mean 22.9 ug/kg, range: 17.5-29.8). All were induced with thiopentone 5 mg/kg, intubated after vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg and ventilated with 67% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Inhalation anaesthesia was not used. Surgery was followed by a fall in immunoglobulins, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts and a rise in leucocyte and neutrophil counts in both groups (p <.01). No recovery was observed until the last assessment on d 6 after surgery in IgA, IgG, leucocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in both groups, whereas IgM and eosinophil counts recovered by d 4. Monocyte and basophil counts were unchanged in either group. AP and transcutaneous stimulation analgesia performed for major abdominal surgery did not influence the body's immune system either during or after surgery as measured by the levels of immunoglobulin and total and differential WBC counts.

Kobayashi_K (1995) Induction of heat-shock protein (hsp) by moxibustion. AJCM 23(3-4):327-330. Dept of Chemistry, Meiji Coll of Oriental Med, Kyoto, Japan. Rats were treated by moxibustion at the point of hip muscle, and intramuscular temperature was kept at 40oC for 15 min. The rats were killed under deep anaesthesia and the muscular tissues were excised immediately, 3 h and 24 h after stimulation. Proteins were extracted from the homogenized and centrifuged tissues of the stimulated rats and control rats. 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the proteins was carried out. Heat-shock protein (hsps) with molecular weight of 70,000, 85,000 and 100,000 (hsps 70, 85 and 100 respectively) were detected in rats killed 3 h after stimulation by moxibustion. Protein patterns were analyzed and the ratios of the hsps were obtained.

Krost_W (1991) [Chronic infections and irritations and their relief with Voll's EAP method]. Zahnarztl Prax 8 Nov 42(11):436-438. In German.

Kudo_T; Kato Y; Masuno H; Honjo H; Kitazawa K (1987) The effect of repeated AP stimulation on canine lymphocyte response. Jap J of Vet Sci 49(6):1009-1013. Dept Vet Surg, Gifu Univ, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-11, Japan. 20 normal healthy mongrel dogs were divided equally into four groups: 1=AP needling at ST36 bilaterally (needles left in situ for 30 min (treated once only); 2=Same as 1 but treated once/d for 5 d; 3=EAP (1 volt, 2 Hz, 1 msec, positive square wave), as in 1; 4=Same as 3 but treated once/d for 5 d. Haematology and cellular immunological responses were determined after repeated AP stimulations. ANAE positive cells, the stimulation index of lymphocytes undergoing blastogenesis by incubation with phytohaemagglutinin and the gamma-globulin of serum protein all decreased within several days after repeated EAP stimulations, representing a decrease in basal immunological response. Repeated EAP stimulation at ST36 in healthy dogs depressed the immunological responses, probably due chiefly to the T-cells.

Lin_JG; Yang SH; Tsai CH (1995) AP protection against experimental hyperbilirubinemia and cholangitis in rats. AJCM 23(2):131-137. Graduate Inst of Chinese Med Science, China Med Coll, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC. Effects of AP on experimental hyperbilirubinemia and cholangitis were studied in male rats (n=33). The experimental group were treated with AP, 18, 12 and 6 hr before and 6, 12 and 18 hr after an oral dose of alpha-naphthyl-isothiocyanate (ANIT, 100 mg/Kg). Rats were killed 48 h after challenge. Serum and liver samples were taken for biochemical and histological analysis, respectively. Rats treated with ANIT had elevated bilirubin, SGOT and SGPT as well as cholangitis. Rats which got AP plus ANIT had significantly less biochemical and morphological indices of liver injury. AP therapy prevents ANIT-induced hyperbilirubinemia and cholangitis.

Liu_J (1993) Treatment of adolescent acne with AP. JTCM Sep 13(3):187-188. China-Mongolia Hospital of Zhalantun City, Inner Mongolia, PRC.

Lundeberg_T; Eriksson SV; Theodorsson E (1991) Neuroimmunomodulatory effects of AP in mice. Neurosci Lett Jul 128(2):161-164. Dept of Physiol II, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of AP on the immunological response. The induction of anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) plaque-forming cells (PFC) was used as a measurement of the immune response to treatment. In normal non-immunized mice, enhancement of PFC was seen after a single AP treatment when spleen cells from stimulated mice were cultured with SRBC in vitro. After 3 AP treatments, spleen cells from mice did not show PFC enhancement after treatment with anti-Thy-1.2 antibody and complement, nor after the removal of non-adherent cells. Serum obtained from mice 1 h after AP stimulation enhanced the PFC of normal spleen cells in vitro, but the enhancement was abolished by the addition of propranolol. AP, by activation of the ANS, modulates the immune response.

Okazaki_M; Sakamoto H; Suzuki M; Oguchi K (1990) Effects of single and multiple moxibustion on activity of platelet function, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in mice. AJCM 18(1-2):77-85. Dept of Pharmacol, Showa Univ, Sch of Med, Tokyo, Japan. The effects of single and multiple moxibustion on platelet function, blood coagulation and fibrinolytic activity in ddY mice were studied. The increase in platelet aggregation and ATP-release after a single moxibustion was dependent on moxa weight and the kind of platelet stimulus. Blood coagulative activity tended to increase in the early phase after a single moxibustion. However, multiple moxibustion maintained the homeostasis on blood coagulation and fibrinolytic activity. The effects of moxibustion on platelet functions and coagulative and fibrinolytic activities cause an enhancement of the phagocytic activity in the host defense mechanism.

Okazaki_M; Aizawa S; Yamauchi M; Oguchi K (1990) Effects of single moxibustion on cutaneous blood vessel and microvascular permeability in mice. AJCM 18(3-4):121-130. Dept of Pharmacol, Showa Univ Sch of Med, Tokyo, Japan. The effects of a single cone moxibustion on cutaneous blood vessel and microvascular permeability in ddY mice were studied by microscopy and by the dye leakage technique. Moxibustion induced an inflammatory response, such as vascular reaction with exudation of leucocytes and enhanced microvascular permeability. This is considered to be a host-defense mechanism.

Orr_PH; Scherer K; Macdonald A; Moffatt ME (1993) Randomized placebo_controlled trials of antibiotics for acute bronchitis: a critical review of the literature [see comments]. J Fam Pract May 36(5):507-512. See Comment in: J Fam Pract Sep 37(3):221. Dept of Community Health Sciences, Univ of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Acute bronchitis is a common clinical problem that causes considerable morbidity and presents both diagnostic and treatment dilemmas for the physician. An evaluation of all published randomized controlled trials of antibiotics in the treatment of acute bronchitis was conducted to:

1.        quantitatively assess methodologic rigor;
2.        determine if effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy is known and;
3.        analyze strengths and weaknesses of randomized controlled trials in family practice settings.

A scoring system for the evaluation of randomized controlled trials was adapted for this study. Four raters, who were blinded to which journals published the studies and the type of antibiotic used in each study, assessed the six-randomized clinical trials for treatment of bronchitis identified through a literature search. The trials were rated according to criteria that measured internal validity. Scores for internal validity ranged from 65.5-102.5 points with a maximum possible score of 120 points (55-85%). The two trials with the highest scores assessed doxycycline and showed no benefit from use of this antibiotic. Single trials that studied erythromycin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole showed improvement in outcome from use of these drugs; however, of the six trials, these two studies ranked fourth and fifth for internal validity. Low scores resulted from small sample size, possible contamination with other treatment measures, and poor assessment of subjects' compliance with antibiotic regimen. Conclusions: An evaluation of the current literature did not support antibiotic treatment for acute bronchitis. Further studies of this common illness are indicated. It is hoped that this critical review of randomized control trials will prove useful in the planning of future studies, in placing greater emphasis on methodologic rigor, and in giving greater consideration to the practical constraints of research in the family practice setting.

Rogers_PAM; Schoen AM; Limehouse J (1992) AP for immune-mediated disorders: Literature review and clinical applications. Probl Vet Med Mar 4(1):162-193. AP activates the defense systems. It influences specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral immunities; activates cell proliferation, including blood, reticuloendothelial, and traumatized cells; and activates leucocytosis, microbicidal activity, antibodies, globulin, complement, and interferon. It modulates hypothalamic-pituitary control of the ANS and neuroendocrine systems, especially microcirculation, response of smooth and striated muscle, and local and general thermoregulation. Immunostimulant points include LI04, LI11, ST36, GB39, SP06, GV14, BL11, BL20, BL23, BL24, BL25, BL26, BL27, BL28, and CV12. Some, such as BL47, are immunosuppressive. Antifebrile points include GV14 and ST36. Reactive reflex Shu-, Mu- and Ear- points are useful in organic diseases. In immunomediated diseases, some or all of these points can be used with other points, especially local points and points of the major symptoms or points of the affected body part, area, function, or organ. Applications of AP include treatment of inflammation and trauma; stimulation of tissue healing in burns, ulcers, indolent wounds, ischemia, necrosis, and gangrene; infections; postinfection sequelae; fever; autoimmune disease; allergies; anaphylaxis and shock; and treatment or prevention of side effects from cytotoxic chemotherapy and ionizing radiation. AP therapy may inhibit neoplastic cells. Examples are given of AP use in immunomediated conditions in small animals.

Sciesinski_Ka1; Frindt A; Kaleta T (1988) The topography of AP points responsible for the level of cellular immunity in polar foxes. Scientifur 12(2):95-98. Immune AP points GV14, LI04, GB39, SP06 and ST36 were located by a prototype sound-detecting device in 35 arctic fox cubs from 3 litters at 11 and 20 wk of age.

Sciesinski_Ka2 (1988) Immunity stimulation in young polar foxes with the help of AP. Scientifur 12(2):99-104. Inst Anim Breed & Tech Anim Prod, Warsaw Agric Univ (SGGW), ul Przejard 4, 05-840 Brwinow, Poland. EAP (6v, 200 mA, 6 Hz for 5 min) was given at LI04 and LI11 in groups of 12 arctic fox cubs, 6 or 8 wk old. Blood samples were collected before and at 4, 10, 28 and 42 d after stimulation. Leucocyte counts were increased 99 and 65% at 4 d in 6 and 8 wk old cubs, respectively. Counts were still increased by 43 and 34% at 42 d.

Sciesinski_Ka3; Frindt A (1988) Stimulation of cell immunity in young polar foxes by EAP at LI11. Scientifur 12(2):105-108. EAP (12V, 200 mA and 10 Hz for 10 min) was given at LI11 or at a nonspecific point in groups of 12 arctic fox cubs at 7 wk of age. Blood samples were collected before and from 3-56 d after stimulation. Leucocyte counts were increased at 3-42 d compared to controls and were lower than controls at 56 d. Changes in differential leucocyte counts are tabulated. EAP at point LI11 may be used to increase immunity in young foxes.

Sciesinski_Ka4 (1988) Producing immune reaction in adult foxes with the help of AP. Scientifur 12(2):109-114. Inst Anim Breed & Tech Anim Prod, Warsaw Agric Univ (SGGW), ul Przejard 4, 05-840 Brwinow, Poland. EAP (6v, 200 mA, 6 Hz) was given at LI04 and LI11 in adult arctic foxes at 8.5 mo (5 foxes; 10 min) or 6 mo (6 foxes; 5 min) of age. Control groups were stimulated at non-specific points. Blood samples were collected from 24 h to 7 d after stimulation in the older group and up to 73 d after in the younger group. Leucocytosis occurred in both groups from 24 h after AP and persisted for 73 d. Neutrophils were increased while lymphocyte counts decreased from 24 h. At 44 d neutrophils were decreased and lymphocytes were increased. It was concluded that AP can induce a significant immune response in adult arctic foxes.

Sciesinski_Ka5 (1990) The measurements of electrical conductivity of the skin at the AP points affecting the immunity in healthy and diseased polar foxes. Scientifur 14(4):271-273. Inst Anim Breed & Tech Anim Prod, Warsaw Agric Univ (SGGW), ul Przejard 4, 05-840 Brwinow, Poland. Measurements were taken of the electrical conductivity of the Reactive Electric Permeable Points (REPP) LI04, LI11, ST36 and GV14, in 20 mature male polar foxes (Alopex lagopus), 10 with no clinical symptoms and 10 with skin lesions (purulent bite wounds or abscesses). Significant differences in REPP measurements were observed at LI04, LI11 and ST36 (but not at GV14) between diseased and healthy animals. Measurements between the left and right side of the body did not differ significantly. Differences in REPP measurements at LI04, LI11 and ST36 could be of diagnostic value to evaluate the functional state of the immune system of foxes.

Sciesinski_Ka6 (1990) Cellular immunity after AP stimulation at the points GV14, LI04 and ST36 together with prophylactic vaccinations in young polar foxes. Scientifur 14(4):274-278. Inst Anim Breed & Tech Anim Prod, Warsaw Agric Univ (SGGW), ul Przejard 4, 05-840 Brwinow, Poland. 24 polar fox cubs (Alopex lagopus) were assigned at 7-wk-old to 4 groups of 6 (3 from each litter): 1=EAP at non-specific points (Negative Control); 2=EAP at LI04, ST36 and GV14; 3=Vaccine + EAP as in 2 (FH vaccine, against distemper and infectious hepatitis); 4=Vaccine alone. Treatments 2 and 3 increased in the number of leucocytes with initial neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia (11 and 28 d) and subsequent lymphocytes (42 d). Vaccine alone did not influence the leucocyte level. EAP at LI04, ST36 and GV14 increased cellular immunity, increasing the number of and altering the composition of the leucocytes.

Sodipo_J (1993) AP and blood studies in sickle-cell anaemia. Lagos AJCM 21(1):85-89. Clinic AP Centre, Surulere, Nigeria. The author recently treated a case of sickle-cell crisis as an emergency for pain relief using AP because all other conventional therapies failed. The result was so effective, dramatic and encouraging that 4 other cases of genotype SS/SC were also treated. These cases are reported, (though small in number) to bring attention to this easy, simple, cheap and convenient therapy and to stimulate research among practising acupuncturists and clinicians.

Wu_Z (1991) Dr Xu Ruizheng's experience in the treatment of verruca plana (flat wart) with AP. JTCM Dec 11(4):281-283. Nanjing College of TCM, PRC.

Xu_H (1990) [The effect of AP on the regulation of immunity: the discovery of serum lymphocyte transformation inhibitory factor in rats after EAP, determination of biological characteristics and analysis of its mechanism of action]. Sheng Li Ko Hsueh Chin Chan Apr 21(2):158-160.

Xu_Y (1990) Treatment of facial skin diseases with AP: a report of 129 cases. JTCM Mar 10(1):22-25. Dept of Dermatology, Wuhan Municipal Hospital of TCM, PRC.

Yang_SH; Lin JG; Tsai CH; Ma JJ (1993) Protection by moxibustion against experimental hyperbilirubinemia and cholangitis in rats. AJCM 21(3-4):237-242. Graduate Inst of Chinese Med Science, China Med Coll, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC. The effects of moxibustion on experimental hyperbilirubinemia and cholangitis were studied in male rats (n=33). The experimental group were treated with moxibustion, 18, 12 and 6 h before and 6, 12 and 18 h after challenge with oral alpha-naphthyl-isothiocyanate (ANIT, 100 mg/kg). Rats were sacrificed 48 h after challenge. Serum and liver samples were taken for biochemical and histological analysis, respectively. Rats treated with ANIT exhibited elevations in bilirubin, SGOT and SGPT as well as cholangitis. In rats receiving moxibustion and ANIT, biochemical and morphological parameters of liver injury were significantly reduced. Thus, this study shows that moxibustion therapy may be able to prevent ANIT-induced hyperbilirubinemia and cholangitis.

Yuan_D; Fu Z; Li S (1992) [Effect of He-Ne laser-AP on lymph-nodes in rats]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 17(1):54-58. Hebei Med Coll, Shijiazhuang, PRC. The lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells in lymph node of rats stimulated by He-Ne laser-AP were observed by using TEM and SEM to investigate the ultrastructural changes of them. There were numerous activated T-cells which showed deeply indented nucleus, abundant small void mitochondria and free ribosomes in the paracortex area. The B-cells were gradually differentiated into large lymphocytes, immature and mature plasmatic cells which with a lot of rough endoplasmic reticulum. They were prominently increased in the pulp area. The macrophages had short processes with numerous folds and microvilli and tended to neighbouring lymphocytes. The nucleus pores were increased. There were a lot of pinocytosomes, phagosomes, lysosomes in various size of macrophages. The bundles (5-6 nm in diameter) of microfilaments of the macrophages were extended from the cytoplasm to the processes. The interdigitating cells which contained the characterized single layer of rER, numerous polysomes, mitochondria and well-developed Golgi-complex were closed to macrophages and lymphocytes. In conclusion the activities of the cellular immunity and humoral immunity were enhanced by laser-AP.

Zhu_Z; Xu R (1990) [Morphometric observation on the mast cells under the AP Channel lines]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 15(2):157-158. Inst of Biophysics, Academia Sinica, PRC. Observation of the number, distribution and characteristics of the mast cells under the low impedance AP Channel lines of 19 amputated limbs of patients suffered from osteoblastoma and 21 rats was carried out microscopically after sectioned and toluidine blue stained. The number of the mast cells was more concentrate under the Channel lines in comparison with their control areas. The difference was significant. This experiment reflexed another aspect of the morphological basis of the biophysical nature of the AP Channel.

Zohmann_A (1994) Effects of AP and Neural Therapy on Diseases of the Immunological Defense. Prakt Tierarzt 1 Feb 75(2):93. A Zohmann, Ludwig Boltzmann Inst, Akupunktur Aussenstelle Vet, Rosenegg 61 A, A-6391 Fieberbrunn, Austria. Understanding the mechanisms of self-regulation extends our knowledge of physiology and pathophysiology. Homeostatic mechanisms also form the basis for understanding the effect of forms of therapy which stimulate the immunologic response, in particular AP and neural therapy.