Philip A.M. Rogers MRCVS

AP and Immunity


Bibikova_A1; Oron U (1993) Promotion of Muscle Regeneration in the Toad (Bufo Viridis) Gastrocnemius-Muscle by Low-Energy Laser Irradiation. Anat Rec Mar 235(3):374-380. Tel Aviv Univ, George S Wise Fac Life Sci, Dept Zool, IL-69978 Tel Aviv, Israel. Quantitative histology and morphometry were used to study the effect of low-energy laser (He-Ne, 632.8 nm) irradiation on skeletal muscle regeneration after cold injury to the gastrocnemius muscle of the toad (Bufo viridis). Starting on d4 post-injury, the injured zones in the experimental toads were subjected to five direct He-Ne laser irradiations (6.0 mW for 2.3 min) every 2 d. Muscles that were injured as above, and subjected to red-light irradiation, served as a control group. Morphometric analysis was performed on histological sections of injured areas at 9, 14, and 30 d postinjury. At 9 d postinjury, mononucleated cells populated 69+17% of the total area of injury. Thereafter, their volume fraction (% of total injured zone) decreased gradually but more rapidly in the laser-irradiated muscle than in the control. The volume fraction of the myotubes in the laser-irradiated muscles at 9 d of muscle regeneration was significantly higher (7.0+2.2%) than in the control muscle (1.2+0.4%). Young myofibres in the laser-irradiated muscles populated 15.5+7.9% and 65.0+9.5% of the injured area at 9 and 14 d of muscle regeneration respectively, while in control muscles these structures were not evident at 9 d and made up only 5.3+2.9% of the traumatized area at 14d postinjury. The volume fraction of the young myofibres further increased by 30 d of muscle regeneration making up 75.7+13.2% of the traumatized area, while in the laser-irradiated muscles most of the injured zone was filled with mature muscle fibres. He-Ne laser irradiation during the regeneration process markedly promoted muscle maturation in the injured zone after cold injury to the toad gastrocnemius muscle.

Bibikova_A2; Oron U (1995) Regeneration in Denervated Toad (Bufo-Viridis) Gastrocnemius-Muscle and the Promotion of the Process by Low-Energy Laser Irradiation. Anat Rec Jan 241(1):123-128. U Oron, Tel Aviv Univ, George S Wise Fac Life Sci, Dep Zool, IL-69978 Tel Aviv, Israel. Denervated skeletal muscles can regenerate but regenerated myofibres do not mature. Denervation also causes elevation of "invasive" and satellite cells but the role of these cells in the regeneration process after injury to denervated muscle is unknown. LLLT modulates and accelerates physiological processes in cells. We compared regeneration in denervated and innervated amphibian muscle and studied whether LLLT before injury can stimulate regeneration in denervated muscle. On d7 postdenervation, denervated gastrocnemius muscles of toads were irradiated with He-Ne laser (6.0 mW, 31.2 J/cm2). Control muscle received red light irradiation at the same wavelength. On d9 postdenervation, cold injury was performed on the site of irradiation of both groups of muscles. On d14 postinjury, all muscles were removed for histology and histomorphometry of mononucleated cells, myotubes, and young myofibres in the regenerated zone. The volume fraction (% total injured zone) of the various structures in the injured zones on d14 after cold injury in the denervated muscles did not differ from innervated injured muscles at the same time interval postinjury. The mononucleated cells and myotubes in the LLLT-treated muscles comprised 49+4% and 6+1% of the injured area, respectively, which was significantly lower than their volume fraction (67+2% and 11+2%, respectively) in the control muscles. The young myofibres populated 34+4% of the total injured area in the denervated and laser irradiated muscles which was significantly higher than their volume fraction (12+2%) in control denervated muscles. Early regeneration can also take place in skeletal denervated and injured muscles of amphibians. The kinetics of the regeneration process are identical in denervated and innervated muscles. The process of regeneration in denervated muscles can be markedly enhanced if the muscle is irradiated by LLLT before injury, probably by activation (stimulation of proliferation and/or differentiation) cells in the muscles that are "recruited" and participate in the process of regeneration.

Ghamsari_SM; Acorda JA; Taguchi K; Abe N; Yamada H (1996) Evaluation of Wound-Healing of the Teat with and Without Low-Level Laser Therapy in Dairy-Cattle by Laser-Doppler Flowmetry in Comparison with Histopathology, Tensiometry and Hydroxyproline Analysis. BVJ Sep 152(5):583-592. Obihiro Univ Agr & Vet Med, Sch Vet Med, Dept Vet Surg, Inada CHO, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan. Perforated teat-wounds in 8 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were closed by four suture patterns with or without low level laser therapy (LLLT). Wound healing was evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), tensiometry and hydroxyproline analysis, and compared with histopathological examination. The three-layer pattern provided the best healing of the entire tear. Mucosal hyperplasia was observed in Gambee and continuous two- layer pattern while eversion of the skin, presence of suture tracts and a greater amount of granulation tissue were observed with the continuous and interrupted two- layer patterns. The epidermis in LLLT groups more closely resembled the normal epidermis, and collagen fibres were denser, thicker and better arranged in LLLT- than in non- LLLT groups. LDF, tensiometry and hydroxyproline analysis correlated well with histopathological examination. LDF, a more rapid, less invasive and painless procedure, can replace tensile strength measurement or hydroxyproline analysis to assess the progress of teat wound healing.

Gomezvillamandos_RJ; Valenzuela JMS; Calatrava IR; Gomezvillamandos JC; Jurado IA (1995) He-Ne-Laser Therapy by Fibroendoscopy in the Mucosa of the Equine Upper Airway. Laser Surg Med 16(2):184-188. RJ Gomezvillamandos, Univ Cordoba, Fac Vet Med, Dep Vet Clin Pathol, Avda Med Azahara 9, E-14005 Cordoba, Spain. Effects of LLLT on cicatrization of superficial wounds in the pharyngeal mucosa were studied in horses. Duplicate pharyngeal mucosal ulcers were induced in 12 horses by submucosal injection of H2SO4. A fibroendoscope and an He-Ne laser were used to treat one of the ulcers and the second ulcer in each animal was left as an untreated control. Biopsy samples were taken from 2 horses after the 7th LLLT session. Irradiated lesions cicatrized at 10.5 d and nonirradiated lesions cicatrized at 18 d. Differences between the irradiated and control groups were highly significant (p<.0001). Histology of the control samples showed epithelial coagulation necrosis, edema, and microthrombi. However, samples from LLLT-treated lesions showed no inflammatory edema but showed active fibroblasts, connective tissue and intensive epithelial regeneration. LLLT accelerated scar-formation and had beneficial effects on equine pharyngeal ulcerative lesions.