Philip A.M. Rogers MRCVS

AP and the Digestive / Gastrointestinal Tract


Anon_ (1990) Personal experience on AP treatment of diarrhoea. JTCM Sep 10(3):163-167 and JTCM Dec 10(4):251-256.

Halevi_S3 (1996) The Astringent Quality of Point GV20: A case history analysis: Part 1. Originally published in the CMJ (UK). Dr Shmuel Halevi is a practitioner of TCM, practising in Israel. Here is a case history of a 38-yr-old woman who had suffered for 4 yr from ulcerative colitis. The use of point GV20, in her case, induced full recovery from all symptoms associated with this disease. It is quite rare in AP therapy to achieve a full recovery, especially from a stubborn and hard-to-cure disease, by the use of a mere point in a prescription. However, in this case I had no doubt (nor did the patient) that the use of this point was the turning point of the treatment.

Case History.
Mrs H, aged 38, was diagnosed 4 yr before her visit to my clinic as having ulcerative colitis. 2 yr before the diagnosis was established, she started suffering from frequent bowel movements accompanied by heavy bleeding, pus and pain. She was sent to Nahariya Hospital where she had several tests, and where, after 2 yr, was given this diagnosis.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, non-specific, inflammatory and ulcerative disease of the LI, characterized most often by bloody diarrhoea. The disease usually begins in the rectosigmoid area and may extend proximally, eventually involving the entire colon, or it may attack most of the LI at once. Most often an attack begins insidiously with an increased urgency to defecate, mild lower abdominal cramps, and the appearance of blood and pus in the stools.

In TCM, LI is a Fu (hollow organ) belonging to the digestive system, and its function is mainly to transport the residues of the digested food to the anus for excretion. Its work depends mostly on SP, which is the Zang in control of the Yun Hua activity of the digestive system, e.g. transformation and transportation of solid and fluid food.

LI diseases may be of Internal or External origin. Internal causes include imbalances of the digestive system such as Xu of ST-Qi or SP-Yang, or by "invasion" of LV-Qi interfering with SP function. These diseases may involve many different digestive problems, besides that of LI. External causes of LI diseases must happen because LI is a Fu (Hollow Bowel) in close relation with possible External pathogens e.g. food, water, poison etc. External LI Syndromes have a more sudden onset; usually most main symptoms are related to the pathology of this organ itself. Because of the functional relationship of LI to SP-ST, LI disease of long duration may harm the transportation-transformation activities of SP. It may also involve SP function of "holding the Xue", or even SP function of "holding the organs and tissues" in place. In these cases there might be chronic bleeding, haemorrhoids, rectal prolapse and other diseases.

Among the Mrs H's symptoms were the following: cramps and pain in her lower abdomen, belching and flatulence, heartburn, dry and itchy eyes. She would sometimes feel weak and dizzy, but most of the time she felt energetic and strong. She also suffered, lately, from sacral-region pain. She did not have gynaecological problems, her periods came on time, and each one lasted 5 d. Mrs H had been pregnant 4 times. She had 3 children and one artificial abortion.

Physical examination revealed a slim, energetic woman, somewhat nervous, who spoke quickly. Her pulse was rapid (96 on first examination), deep, thin and soggy. In the right Gate/Guan position it had a wiry quality as well, and felt more elevated. The tongue was basically pale with somewhat redder edges, covered with slippery yellowish moss.

On palpation of the abdomen the descending colon was very tender, as well as the epigastric region. Left GB25 (KI Mu-Front point) was also tender, as well as both LV14 points (LV Mu-Front points).

In accordance with the findings described above, diagnosis was LI invasion by Damp-Heat. The Heat caused bleeding and irritation of the inner mucosa of the colon (LI), which in turn caused frequent peristalsis and diarrhoea. The long duration of bleeding caused a Xu of Xue and Yin which showed itself in the heartburn, dry eyes and dizziness, as well as the pale tongue and thin submerged pulse. The abundance of Damp showed itself by the slippery yellowish tongue-moss.

The treatment was given in 2 phases:
1.        Eliminate the Shi symptoms, e.g. heavy bleeding, Damp and diarrhoea. 2.        Strengthen constitutional weakness, repair internal damage. The points were: LI04, CV12, BL25, ST25, ST37, SP09, ST36, SP06. LI04 is LI Yuan point. Yuan points deal directly with their associated organs. This point was reduced by rotation and lifting and thrusting manipulation. BL25 and ST25 were chosen in accordance with the principle of combining Shu-Back and Mu-Front points: to regulate LI function. ST37 is the LI Lower He-Sea point and was reduced in order to Clear Damp and Heat from that organ. SP09 and SP06 are famous for their mutual ability to clear Damp from the digestive system, and hence treat diarrhoea and pus in the stools. ST36 was tonified to tonify SP, in order to stop the bleeding and help to recreate Yin and Xue. It was the only point which was tonified. CV12 (ST Mu-Front point and Confluent point of all the Fu (Hollow Bowels)) was manipulated evenly. After 12 sessions, given 3-4 times/wk, bowel frequency fell from 15-20 to 3-4 times/d. There was much less gas and pain in the bowels, and there was very little pus. However, there was only a small decrease of bleeding. In order to further arrest the bleeding, the prescription was changed to the following: SP01, BL17, BL20, BL24, CV06, ST25, ST36, SP09. SP01 (SP Jing-Well point and Wood point) tonifies SP and arrest bleeding (by direct moxibustion). BL17 (Hui point of Xue and Shu-Back point of Diaphragm-respiration) was tonified. BL20 (SP Shu-Back point) was tonified to tonify the SP function of retaining Xue. BL24 (Qihai (Qi Sea) Back-Shu point) was treated by warming needle technique; BL24, with CV06, arrests bleeding. ST25 was also treated by warming needle technique. ST36 and SP09 remained intact.

Warm-needle technique were used for 2 reasons: 1.        This technique is renowned for its ability to resolve Damp and create Xue. 2.        Since the patient's Syndrome showed no definite Heat signs at this stage, and the submerged pulse indicated Yangqi-Xu within the Xue, it was decided to strengthen the Yangqi by warming needle, and by this the astringent quality of SP.

This new formula showed itself effective, and after each treatment with moxa, there was a remission of bleeding for one to 3 d. Along with this the other symptoms further improved, the coating of the tongue subsided, and the bleeding was much less massive.

This new treatment pattern was given for circa 15 sessions, by which time the patient had 1-2 bowel movements/d. Most of the previous symptoms were gone except for bleeding in the stools, and slight light-headedness now and then.

At this stage I decided to further change the point prescription, as follows: SP06 (Bu method); CV04 (also, Bu method, to tonify Yuanqi, KI, Xue and constitution); CV06 and ST25 by warm-needling.

This program was carried on twice/wk for several wk, but the bleeding still persisted.

Halevi_S4 (1996) The Astringent Quality of Point GV20: A case history analysis: Part 2. Several attempts were made to give the treatment without moxa on ST25, after which the usual 2-day remission in the bleeding did not occur.

I decided to add GV20 (Baihui, 100 meetings) to the prescription. GV20 is on the most Yang part of the body, the vertex. It is the Hui-Meeting Point of all the Yang Channels; its function is to strengthen Yang and elevate Qi. GV20 also raises the sinking Qi of SP. Thus (and for other qualities not discussed here) GV20 was used mainly for astringent purposes for TCM disorders in which normal Jin-Ye (urine, sweat, blood, tears, semen etc) are discharged abnormally, abnormal fluids (diarrhoea, vomit etc) are discharged, and/or organs (uterus, rectum etc) prolapse from their normal positions. I punctured Baihui GV20 for 1 cun, horizontally and in a posterior direction. The patient reported a strong tingling sensation all over the top of her head, along with local pain and distention. From that treatment on there was no recurrence of bleeding in the stools. The patient came to me thereafter for several mo, once/mo, to receive the same treatment, and her condition remains unchanged.

Conclusion: The cessation of bleeding and restoration of complete normal functioning of LI was indeed dramatic after the application of GV20. The gradual improvement of the patient's Syndrome e.g. elimination of Shi symptoms first, and then restoration of normal LI function, proves that basically both the diagnosis and treatment were applied correctly. However one might wonder whether an earlier use of GV20 would have cured the patient earlier. I concluded: 1.        If ultimate resolution is not achieved, one should never hesitate to reconsider, alter or add other points (or techniques), even though one is sure of the diagnosis and choice of points. 2.        Even with perfect diagnosis and a point-selection to match the diagnosis, sometimes the choice of 1-2 different points within the many options of a given Syndrome, can make the difference between a good treatment and an inspired one.

Hwang_YC; Jenkins EM (1988) Effect of AP on young pigs with induced enteropathogenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea. Am J Vet Res Sep 49(9):1641-1643. 34 preweaning pigs with induced enteropathogenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea were treated with EAP, traditional AP, or neomycin. In the group treated with EAP, points GV01, bilateral ST36, and Baihui were stimulated electrically. In the group treated with traditional AP, points GV01, bilateral ST36, BL20, Timen (Bulb points), bilateral Erken (Ear Tip), and Shangen were used. CV12 and bilateral ST25 also were treated with moxibustion (applying heat generated by a burning herb, Artemisia argyi). Haemoacupuncture also was applied to Shangen, bilateral Ergen, and Timen. Pigs in the third group were given neomycin orally. Five pigs were inoculated with E coli, but were not treated and served as nontreated controls. At d5 postinoculation 60% of control pigs and >80% of pigs in treated groups recovered from diarrhoea. However, at postinoculation day 3, recovery rates for pigs in the control and group treated with EAP were only 20 and 27.3%, respectively, whereas 82 and 71% of pigs treated with AP or neomycin recovered respectively. Seemingly, traditional AP, but not EAP, was effective in controlling induced E coli diarrhoea in pigs at its early stage.

Iwa_M; Sakita M (1994) Effects of AP and moxibustion on intestinal motility in mice. AJCM 22(2):119-125. Dept of Oriental Med, Meiji Coll of Oriental Med, Kyoto, Japan. To study the effects of AP and moxibustion on intestinal motility, the distance of intra-intestinal movement of a carbon solution injected into the stomach of a mouse was evaluated. Intestinal motility was also evaluated using several drugs to accelerate or reduce intestinal motility. Intestinal peristalsis was accelerated significantly by AP at the abdomen, but suppressed by moxibustion. The intestinal peristalsis acceleration by vagostigmin was reduced significantly by both AP and moxibustion, while the reduction of intestinal peristalsis by atropine was accelerated significantly. However, no remarkable changes of intestinal peristalsis were observed with treatment by AP and moxibustion after reduction by epinephrine.

Jiang_R (1990) Analgesic effect of AP on acute intestinal colic in 190 cases. JTCM Mar 10(1):20-21. Benniu People's Hospital, Wujin County, Jiangsu Province, PRC.

Klauser_AG; Rubach A; Bertsche O; Müller-Lissner SA (1993) Body AP: effect on colonic function in chronic constipation. Z Gastroenterol Oct 31(10):605-608. Dept of Gastroenterol, Klinikum Innenstadt, Medizinische Klinik, Univ of Munich, Germany. Though there are no studies to prove it, AP has been claimed to be effective to treat chronic constipation. We therefore studied the effect of body AP on stool frequency and colonic transit time of radiopaque markers in 8 constipated patients (58+6 yr; 5 M, 3 F). Vigorous straining had been necessary for >1 yr to defecate without the use of laxatives; total colonic marker transit time was >60 h. We used a control lead-in period and a treatment period with 6 sessions in 3 wk. EAP (10 Hz, output to individual threshold, 25 min/session) was given at LI04, ST25, LV03 and BL25. 2 patients dropped out during AP because symptoms of constipation worsened. In the other 6 patients, mean stool frequencies and colonic transit times were not significantly different between the control and AP period (0.38+0.09 v 0.40+0.14 defecations/d+sem, 95% confidence interval for the difference (control minus AP)=[-0.34; 0.30], and 97+17 v 108+24h, 95% CI [-50; 27]). Segmental transit times for right and left hemicolon, and rectosigmoid colon did not differ significantly either. AP as performed in this study did not influence objective parameters of colonic function to a clinically relevant degree.

Kopeikin_VN; Belentsova LA (1991) [AP to treat gastroenteric diseases in children]. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult May-Jun 3:43-45. Individual regimens of AP were used in combination with other therapies to treat 66 children with various gastrointestinal diseases. Adding AP to the combined treatment improved the clinical results 1.4-fold.

Kunze_M; Seidel HJ; Stube G (1990) Comparative studies of the effectiveness of brief psychotherapy, AP and papaverine therapy in patients with irritable bowel Syndrome (IBS). Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Innere Medizin und Ihre Grenzgebiete 15 Oct 45(20):625-627. Klinik fur Innere Medizin, Bereich Neuropsychiatrie, Bezirkskrankenhauses Suhl. Five forms of therapy were compared in patients with IBS: 1=brief psychotherapy; 2=AP; 3=Pseudo-AP; 4=papaverine therapy; 5=papaverine-placebo therapy. Psychotherapy gave the best results, with symptom-free long-lasting success in 74% of cases. This was highly significantly better than the other methods. Success rates for the other treatments were: AP 31% (significantly better than pseudo-AP (17%)); papaverine 17% (significantly different from papaverine-placebo). Success rates of brief psychotherapy differed markedly between therapists, indicating the role of personality and perfection in mastering the methods with psychotherapeutic procedures. Comparable differences between the examiners were not found in the effects of spasmolytic therapy.

Laio_CC (1990) Studies on the treatment of neonatal diarrhoea in calves by TCM and AP. Proceedings 5th AAAP Animal Science Congress, May 27-June 1, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Vol 3:184. Taiwan Sugar Corporation, Chunan, Miaoli, Taiwan, ROC.

Li_Y; Tougas G; Chiverton SG; Hunt RH (1992) The effect of AP on gastrointestinal function and disorders. Am J Gastroenterol Oct 87(10):1372-1381. Div of Gastroenterol, McMaster Univ Med Ctr, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. AP has recently drawn interest as a method of analgesia. Despite extensive research, the exact mechanisms of its analgesic action are unknown, but are thought to involve endogenous opioid peptides. Recently, studies attempted to evaluate the effect of AP on gastrointestinal function and disease. A review of studies from both the Chinese and Western literature supports the efficacy of AP in the regulation of gastrointestinal motor activity and secretion through opioid and other neural pathways. However, because of the lack of properly randomized controlled trials, one can draw no firm conclusion on the efficacy of AP to treat specific gastrointestinal disorders.

Liu_J; Zhou X; Zeng X; Zhu J (1993) Effects of AP on myoelectric activity of Oddi's sphincter in humans. JTCM Sep 13(3):189-190. Luzhou Med College, Sichuan, PRC.

Liu_JX5; Zhao Q (1991) Effect of AP on postoperative intestinal peristalsis and sero-enzyme activity. Chung Hsi i Chieh Ho Tsa Chih - Chin J of Modern Developments in Trad Med Mar 11(3):156-157, 133-134. Navy General Hospital, Beijing, PRC. Abdominal surgical patients (n=39) were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1=Needle AP at ST36 and SP06 at 12-24 h after operation and; 2=Control (untreated). Sero-enzyme activity of GPT, GOT and GGT was assayed preoperation and at 1, 3, 5, 7 d postoperation. Time to the first defecation was noted. Time to first post-operative defecation was 57.8+23.9 v 86.1+20.4 h in Groups 1 and 2 respectively; AP shortened the time of postoperative faecal retention by a mean of 28h (p<.001). In both groups, sero-enzyme activity post-surgery was 23 times greater than before; surgical trauma directly or indirectly impaired cells to release enzyme into blood. However, AP significantly decreased the time to recovery of normal sero-enzyme activity. AP significantly improved restoration of intestinal peristalsis and defecation, regulated tissue reactivity to trauma, and promoted the repair of damaged cells.

Liu_N (1995) [Influence of stimulating ST36 with moxibustion of different quality and quantity on gastrointestinal motor function of reserpinized rats]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 20(1):48-53. AP and Massage Dept, Nanjing Coll of TCM. This article is focused on the observation of changes in body temperature, body weight, cholinesterase activity in blood, and gastrointestinal motility of reserpinized rats treated by stimulating ST36 with moxibustion of different quality (mugwort floss or pipe tobacco) and quantity (strong stimulation or weak stimulation). Better results were achieved with moxibustion not by burning tobacco; the result of strong stimulation with moxa-sticks was better than that of weak stimulation with the same material. Strong stimulation with moxa-sticks obviously increased the activity of cholinesterase (p <.05), inhibited hyperactive gastrointestinal motility (p <.05), maintained normal body temperature (p <.05), and prevented body weight loss. The therapeutic results of moxibustion were closely related to the quality and quantity of moxibustion.

Panzer_RB2; Merritt AM; Lester GD; Burrow JA (1993) The Effects of EAP at the Guan-Yuan-Shu AP point on Equine Colonic Motility. Proceedings of 11th Annual Vet Med Forum 657-658. RB Panzer, Univ Florida, Coll Vet Med, Gainesville, FL 32611.

Stone_Af (1996) Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Adapted from WWW (Al Stone e-mail: IBS is a disorder effecting the intestine's ability to move its contents. This creates a symptom complex with both upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms. Main symptoms include variable degrees of abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhoea, as well as bloating after eating. The symptoms nearly always occur in the waking state and are usually triggered by stress or the ingestion of food. This Syndrome represents circa 50% of all GI referrals or initial GI complaints in private and institutional care facilities. Women are affected 3 times as often as men. In the Merck Manual, (16th edition) one of WM's most respected and widely used references, no anatomic cause can be found. Emotional factors, diet, drugs, or hormones may precipitate or aggravate a heightened sensitivity to GI motility.

Clinical IBS has two main types: 1.        The "spastic colon type" has variable LI movements. Most patients have pain that originates in the LI with periodic constipation and diarrhoea. Eating commonly triggers symptoms, which include a dull ache in the lower abdomen (either continuous or comes and goes in bouts). It may be relieved by a bowel movement. Nonspecific symptoms such as bloating, flatulence, nausea, headache, fatigue, depression, anxiety and difficulty in concentration are common. 2.        The "painless urgent precipitous diarrhoea type" mainly occurs immediately upon rising or, more typically, during or immediately after food. Incontinence may also occur. Nocturnal diarrhoea is unusual.

IBS is a Western differentiation. In TCM, symptoms are organized differently. Fortunately, symptoms that may seem unrelated in WM make very simple and typical Syndromes in TCM. In TCM, SP is the key organ in charge of digestion. In WM, SP has certain functions that don't necessarily agree with the TCM concept of the organ; that is why SP is capitalized when referring to its TCM functions. In TCM, SP embraces the WM-functions of both SP and pancreas. SP-Xu, a malfunction in which SP is weakened by various factors, is like a car's engine in need of a tune-up. When the workings of the car aren't operating efficiently, many problems arise, for example reduced power and more exhaust smoke. Symptoms of SP-Xu include bloating and flatulence, somewhat like a car's engine pinging, knocking or backfiring. Diarrhoea, which is also the key symptom of IBS, is another key symptom of SP-Xu. ST is the organ with which SP has most association. In any disharmony within SP, ST may respond with nausea and vomiting.

When a car's engine is not tuned well, it doesn't burn fuel well. This can create a greater amount of exhaust fumes and carbon-accumulation in the exhaust system. In SP-Xu, the weak SP cannot metabolize the food efficiently and SP creates "Damp" in the body, the equivalent of excessive exhaust smoke in the car. In SP-Damp, the Damp it can rise to the head and create headaches that have a sensation of dull fullness in the head, the kind of headache described as "a clamp tightened around the head". Other manifestations of Damp rising to the head include a foggy inability to concentrate. Fog is much like Damp. Given time, Damp-Stasis can increase in LI. When this happens, mucus in the stool, another common IBS sign, is the typical symptom.

If SP cannot adequately obtain nutrition from the food, the obvious symptom would also include fatigue. Inability of SP to assimilate the food's nutrition may cause Xue-Xu. In Xue-Xu, specifically if Xue is not sufficient to nourish HT, anxiety follows. In TCM, Xue-Xu comes close to the WM diagnosis of anaemia. There is some overlap but a few symptoms differ, especially as regards Xue's function to nourish the TCM concept of HT, which is associated with maintaining "peace of mind".

In TCM, other symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) can be explained by including one other organ (LV) besides SP. LV (Wood) Controls SP (Earth). Going back to the analogy of the car, SP has what mechanics call "companion parts" that can effect SP if they fall out of balance first. If you have a dead car battery, it could be one of 3 things. The battery could be unable to hold a charge. Or, the problem that manifests in the battery could be coming from one of its companion parts such as the voltage regulator or the alternator. If either of these 2 components are faulty, the battery won't have enough charge to start your car. The same thing applies to SP. If one is subject to severe emotional stress, impaired LV functions impact on SP functions. The problem manifests in SP, but is due to LV problems.

In TCM, LV is the organ most sensitive to emotional stress. When LV is involved, additional symptoms will include dull pain that comes and goes along with alternating constipation and diarrhoea. In this case, it is possible that the underlying cause of the IBS is due to emotional factors effecting LV first and SP second. Though it is also possible that the stress associated with the IBS will create additional emotions effecting LV which further aggravates the condition. Either is possible.

The other "companion part" scenario involves KI. In TCM, KI regulates the Yin-Yang in the body. Yin could be described as the hydration function of the body, and Yang is much like the metabolic heat. Some people simply refer to it as the balance between Fire and Water in the body. Fire-Xu, or Yangqi-Xu in the body can cause SP-Cold, impairing SP function. When a car's windows are fogged up, we turn on the defroster and the warm air evaporates and blows away the Damp condensation. In KI-Yang-Xu, SP can't warm up to digest the food in the same way that the engine must warm up before the heater will start blowing out hot air to clear up the windshield.

When KI is the root of a SP-problem, early morning diarrhoea arises as part of the symptomological picture. This is such a typical manifestation of KI-Yang-Xu in TCM that there is a term for this kind of diarrhoea: "Cock's Crow" Diarrhoea. It gets this name because early morning diarrhoea happens when the Cock is crowing in the morning. In TCM, KI controls the lower orifices (sphincters of the bladder/urethra and LI/anus). In KI-Xu, these orifices don't have enough Qi to stay closed, and so incontinence occurs.

So, although WM doesn't yet have a good idea as to what and how IBS occurs, TCM has a very clear and obvious explanation for what is a very typical symptomatic picture.

Depending on the underlying causes of IBS, the specific symptoms and the patient's constitution, the treatment of IBS needs different approaches. If SP alone is involved, AP and herbal treatment would seek to tonify (or strengthen) SP function to make it more efficient, clear and clean the entire digestive tract, and dry the Damp within the body. If LV is involved also, the treatment principle would include therapies to sedate and calm LV, as well as the patient, which will relieve the abdominal pains and allow for the healing of SP functions. If KI is involved in the IBS, treatment would include tonifying KI-Yang to warm SP and make it more efficient as well as tonifying KI to be able to astringe both the diarrhoea and urine in incontinence.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) has been treated effectively for millennia through TCM. And if the number of enquiries that come to regarding IBS is any indication, TCM will continue to be a source of very welcome relief for those who suffer from IBS.

Su_Z (1992) AP treatment of infantile diarrhoea: a report of 1050 cases. JTCM Jun 12(2):120-121. Dept. of Pediatrics, Ma An Shan People's Hospital, Anhui Province, PRC.

Xu_G (1994) [Regulating effect of EAP on dysrythmia of gastrocolonic electric activity induced by erythromycin in rabbits]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 19(1):71-74. Inst of AP and Channel, Anhui Coll of TCM, Hefei, PRC. The myoelectrical activity of the gastrocolon was recorded in 20 rabbits. Gastrocolonic disorder was induced by iv injection of erythromycin (EM, 7 mg/kg). We studied the regulating effect of EAP on gastrocolonic electric activity (GEA). The effect of EAP was studied after vagotomy. In fasting and anaesthetic rabbits, the frequency and amplitude of GEA were 4.47+1.23 cmp, 1.90+0.27 mV at antrum, 8.33+2.61 cpm, 0.51+0.12 mV at ascending colon, 6.74+2.68 cpm, 0.35+0.10 mV at descending colon. After injection of EM, the frequency and amplitude of GEA increased, the latency and duration of EM effect were 36.5+4.5 min and 3.8+1.4 min and a great contraction wave occurred. EAP shortened the duration and latency, decreased the frequency, amplitude and variation coefficient of GEA. Vagotomy abolished the effect of EAP. The vagus nerve is important in regulating effect of EAP on gastrocolonic disorder.

Xu_G1 (1994) Influence of stress on gastroenteric electric activity and modulated effect of AP on it in rats. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu - AP Research 19(2):72-74. Inst of AP and Channels, Anhui Coll of TCM, PRC. 3 pairs of bipolar electrode were implanted surgically on the antrum, ascending and descending colon of SD rats. Stress was induced by restraint immersion for 30-40 min in cold water at 4oC. The modulating effect of AP at ST36 on gastroenteric electric activity was studied. Stress induced significant inhibition of gastrocolon electrical activity (reduced frequency and amplitude of slow wave, rhythmic disorder, increased degree of dispersion, decreased fast wave and prolonged or disturbed IDMEC phase III. AP at ST36 effectively reduced stress-induced inhibition of gastrocolonic electrical activity in rats.

Zhang_J1; Jiang D; Qin J (1992) The segmental distribution of the afferent neurons of ST36 and the caecum in rabbits: a study with the horseradish peroxidase method. Chen-Tzu-Yen-Chiu 17(2):123-125. Dept of Anatomy, Guilin Med Coll. 10 adult rabbits were used in this experiment. A solution of 10-20% HRP (sigma IX, RZ=3.2) was injected into ST36 and the subserosa of the caecum. The uptake and retrograde transmission of HRP in the afferent neurons of both the somatic and visceral nerves were traced to the spinal ganglia. Labelled afferent neurons from the region of ST36 were found in the spinal ganglia T12-S2 with higher numbers in L4-S2. Labelled afferent neurons from the region of the caecum were found in the spinal ganglia T2-S2 with a higher numbers in T12-L2. The ranges of distribution of labelled afferent neurons from the regions overlapped in the segments T12-S2.