Philip A.M. Rogers MRCVS

AP and Spinal Trauma, Paralysis, Polio, Epilepsy, Spasm


Chu_NSa1; Wu CL; Tseng TS; Kuo LL (1991) Sphenoidal EEG recording using AP needle electrode in complex partial seizure. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol Aug 79(2):119-126. Dept of Neurol, Chang Gung Med Coll and Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Sphenoidal EEG recording using an uninsulated AP needle electrode were performed in 41 patients with or suspected of complex partial seizures of temporal lobe origin. The anterior temporal spikes were detected by the routine EEG in 17 patients (41%) and by the AP sphenoidal needle in 29 patients (70%). The anterior temporal spikes recorded by the AP needle were almost identical in configuration, amplitude and distribution to those recorded by conventional wire or insulated needle sphenoidal electrodes. The sequence in the frequency of spike detection by these 3 types of sphenoidal electrode were SP1-2, T1-2, F7-8 and A1-2 locations. The spikes of maximal amplitude were most frequently recorded by the SP electrode followed by the T1-2 electrode. The placement of the disposable AP needle was simple and safe. Patients experienced minimal discomfort or pain that lasted at most 0.5 h. No complications occurred. The records were generally free of artifacts. It is concluded that the AP needle can be used as sphenoidal electrode in outpatient EEG recording for the diagnosis of complex partial seizures of anterior temporal-origin.

Chu_NSa2 (1992) A simultaneous comparison of AP needle and insulated needle sphenoidal electrodes for detection of anterior temporal spikes. Dept of Neurol, Chang Gung Med Coll and Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Clin Electroencephalogr Jan 23(1):47-51. Uninsulated AP needles have been used as sphenoidal electrodes, but the issue of insulation has not been addressed adequately. In this report, AP needles and insulated needle sphenoidal electrodes were used simultaneously to compare the rate of spike detection, spike amplitude and distribution of maximal spikes from 8 spike foci in 7 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. When compared to the insulated needle electrode, the AP needle electrode was equally effective in spike detection, but spike amplitudes tended to be smaller and maximal spikes were less frequently encountered. Thus, insulation has an influence on the spikes recorded by the AP needle sphenoidal electrode. However, the overall effect appears to be not sufficiently different from the insulated needle electrode for the purpose of detecting anterior temporal spikes in outpatient EEG recordings for the diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy.

Janssens_LAA2 (1993) Ear AP for Treatment of Epilepsy in the Dog. Prog Vet Neurol FAL 4(3):89-94. Oudestr 37, B-2610 Antwerp, Belgium. 11 dogs (mean age 5.8 yr; mean bodyweight 26 kg) with chronic epilepsy were treated by ear AP; 7 were on high doses of anti-epileptic drugs (of which 4 showed no decrease of seizures, 2 had temporary reduction of seizures and 1 complete control of seizures). A human stay ear AP needle was implanted in one point in both ears. The needles stayed in place for between 4 d and 4 mo (mean 2 wk). The needles were replaced (mean 4 times) on a 3-9 wk basis. After treatment, 4 were seizure-free, 2 had fewer seizures and 4 showed no amelioration. Of the seven dogs that received medication before AP treatment, one was seizure-free and without medication, one was kept on half-dose drugs and was much improved, and three were maintained on much lower drug doses (-33/-50%) with no clinical deterioration. Two dogs that still had attacks were reported to have shorter or absent prodromal and postictal periods. In conclusion, results from 5/11 dogs tested showed that ear AP may afford partial or complete seizure remission.

Lai_XP (1996) AP Therapy and Point-injection of Med for Treatment of 32 Cases of Infantile Cerebral Palsy. Dept of AP and Moxibustion, Fuyang Textile Mill Hospital, Anhui, 236089 PRC. Adapted from WWW. 32 cases of infantile cerebral palsy were treated with AP and point-injection. 15/32 cases were cured basically, 7/32 markedly effective, 9/32 improved and 2/32 failed; the total effective rate was 94%. AP both could improve the microcirculation of the brain tissues in favour of recovery of cerebral functions.

Lu_W (1994) Prompt pressure applied to Strange points to treat spasmodic infantile cerebral palsy: a report of 318 cases. Chung i tsa chih (JTCM) Sep 14(3):180-184. Infantile cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive CNS motor disturbance of varied etiology. The spasmodic type, its main form, accounts for 50-60% of afflicted infants. The causal factors include many conditions arising during parturition and in the pre- and post- natal periods. No specific treatment for the disease exists. We applied prompt pressure to Strange AP points in treating it, with satisfactory results. Infantile Strange points are points peculiar to infants, mostly located in the head and extremities. They are an important part of the treasure-house of TCM. 318 patients were treated by prompt pressure at the Strange points, combined with appropriate orthopaedic manipulations. Good to excellent therapeutic effect occurred in 73%. Follow-up exam was done in 52 cases; 21/53 were assessed as stable; 31/52 cases were improved. The method is simple and convenient, causes little pain but gave a marked therapeutic effect. It can be regarded as a new way to treat infantile cerebral palsy.

Panzer_RB3; Chrisman CL (1994) An Ear-AP Treatment for Idiopathic Canine Epilepsy: A Preliminary-Report. AJCM 22(1):11-17. RB Panzer, NW Inst AP & Oriental Med, Seattle, WA 98103. A new canine Ear-AP point for the treatment for epilepsy is introduced. The new point was used with a previously reported canine Ear-point (van Neikerk and Eckersley, 1988) to treat epilepsy in 5 dogs. The method is worthy of scientific investigation. Only testimonial evidence currently supports its application, yet this innocuous treatment is recommended for use in all cases of canine epilepsy. The TCM explanation for the treatment is described, and hypothetical Western physiology is presented.

Shaitor_IN; Bogdanov OV; Shaitor VM (1990) [The combined use of functional biocontrol and AP reflexotherapy in children with the spastic forms of infantile cerebral palsy]. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult Nov-Dec (6):38-42. An optimal method of rehabilitation is outlined for children with movement disorders due to spastic cerebral paralysis. It combines the use of functional biocontrol and AP. In drug intolerance the treatment acquires special significance. The effectiveness of these 2 modalities comes from mutual potentiation effect on central regulation of motor functions as shown by electrophysiological findings. Marked positive shifts in clinical and electrophysiological patterns develop within 15 training procedures with the external feedback in addition to 11 sessions of AP.

Shi_B; Bu H; Lin L (1992) A clinical study on AP treatment of paediatric cerebral palsy. JTCM Mar 12(1):45-51. Children's Hospital, Shanghai Med Univ, PRC.

van_Niekerk_J; Eckersley N (1988) The use of AP in canine epilepsy. J South Afr Vet Assoc 59(1):5.

Wang_BE1; Yang R; Cheng JS (1994) Effect of EAP on the level of preproenkephalin mRNA in rat during penicillin-induced epilepsy. AETRIJ Jun-Sep 19(2-3):129-140. Inst of AP Research, PRC. In our previous studies, seizure induced by injecting penicillin (0.24 mg/2 uL) into hippocampus was inhibited by EAP, probably via decreasing enkephalin level in hippocampus. To determine whether this change reflected the peptide synthesis, preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA was detected in hippocampus and some other limbic structures during seizure and after EAP treatment by in-situ hybridization. 4 h after injecting penicillin into hippocampus, PPE mRNA levels were significantly increased by 10-fold in entorhinal cortex, subiculum, CA1 area of hippocampus, amygdaloid nucleus and piriform cortex, whereas EAP treatment apparently attenuated the seizure-induced increase of PPE mRNA in the areas mentioned above. EAP may regulate the biosynthesis of PPE in hippocampus during seizure by an alteration in gene transcription.

White_SS; Christie MP (1985) AP used as an adjunct in the treatment of a horse with tetanus. Aust Vet J Jan 62(1):25-26.

Wu_D (1992) Mechanism of AP in suppressing epileptic seizures. JTCM Sep 12(3):187-192. Dept of Physiology, Shanghai College of TCM, PRC.

Wu_Y; Shen Q; Zhang Q (1992) [The effect of AP on high oxygen pressure-induced convulsion and its relationship to the brain GABA level in mice]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 17(2):104-109. Inst of Navigation Med, Nantong Med Coll, Jiangsu. This paper reports the effect of AP at GV26 and CV24 on OHP-induced convulsion in mice. Results: 1. Convulsion induced by 6 ATA OHP were accompanied with a decrease in the brain GABA level. 2. When EAP was applied for 15 min before exposure to hyperoxic chamber, the latency of convulsions was lengthened and the symptoms of seizures were alleviated. Besides, the brain GABA level was also elevated remarkably. 3. Administration of vitamin B6 enhanced the effect of AP on convulsions and increased brain GABA level. 4. The latency of convulsions was well correlated with the GABA level of the brain (r=.9867). AP may elevate endogenous GABA levels in the brain and prevent the hyperbaric-oxygen-induced the decrease in the brain GABA level. Therefore, AP protects effect against oxygen convulsions. Vitamin B6 may facilitate the effect of AP by improving the GABA metabolism in the brain. In short, the effect of AP against oxygen convulsions may be closely related to the increase in the brain GABA levels.

Yang_J (1990) Treatment of status epilepticus with AP. JTCM Jun 10(2):101-102. Dept of AP, Hospital for Mental Diseases, Fuyang District, Anhui Province, PRC.

Yoshida_T; Tanaka C; Umeda M; Higuchi T; Fukunaga M; Naruse S (1995) Non-invasive measurement of brain activity using functional MRI: toward the study of brain response to AP stimulation. AJCM 23(3-4):319-325. Dept of Neurosurgery, Meiji Coll of Oriental Med, Kyoto, Japan. We studied functional MRI in 15 male and 13 female normal volunteers on a clinical MRI system using gradient echo sequence. During the experiments, brain activation was induced by grasping the unilateral hand 1-2 times/s for motor tasks. A localized increase of MRI signal in the contralateral motor cortex was observed in 17/21 cases (81%) under right hand motor task and 11/21 cases (52%) under left hand motor task. The application of this method may be useful to evaluate brain response to AP.

Zhang_Z; Yu Z; Zhang H (1992) [Inhibitory effect of EAP on penicillin-induced amygdala epileptiform discharges]. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 17(2):96-98. Shanghai Coll of TCM, PRC. Epileptiform discharge induced by microinjection of penicillin in the rat's amygdala was attenuated after AP of certain AP points, as shown by reduced frequency and amplitude. The effect of AP was reversed by ip microinjection of naloxone or 3M-P, thus suggesting the participation of endorphin and GABA in antiepileptic action of AP.

Zhou_XJ; Chen T; Chen JT (1993) [75 infantile palsy children treated with AP, acupressure and functional training]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih Apr 13(4):220-222, 197. Children's Hospital, Zhejiang Med Univ, Hangzhou, PRC. In treating infantile cerebral palsy (CP), 75 CP children were treated with a comprehensive Channel therapy including scalp and body AP, AP point injection and Ear-point stimulation, supplemented with acupressure and massage, and functional training. Treatment was repeated from a minimum of 10 times in 20 d to a maximum of 3 times/wk for 1 yr. The effect of the treatment was evaluated by appraising the children's performance of physical exercise and their social adaptability. The intelligence quotient (IQ) of 30 sick children that had been treated for 60 times (6 courses) was compared before and after treatment. AP treatment gave a very positive improvement in the children's physical capability and an increase of their intelligence.