CLINICAL ACUPUNCTURE IN HORSES

Part 8
Marvin J. Cain DVM
Philip A.M. Rogers MRCVS
(Written 1985; revised 1987, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1995, 1996)

QUESTIONS

Channel codes used in these questions are: LU, LI, ST, SP, HT, SI, BL, KI, PC, TH, GB, LV, CV, GV.

 

1. One of the following statements is not correct. Indicate the incorrect statement:

(a) AP point sensitivity may be found by palpation or by response to thermal or electrical stimuli applied to the points.

(b) Electrical resistance-, impedance- or conductance- meters may be used to detect reactive AP points.

(c) The therapeutic aspects of AP are mediated by the reflex system and by activation of spinal and central neuroendocrine and systemic responses.

(d) AP has analgesic, antiinflammatory, immunostimulant and immunosuppressive effects; antispasmodic effects on striated and smooth muscle; marked effect on blood micro-circulation, cell metabolism and glandular secretion in organs related to the stimulated AP points.

(e) AP has therapeutic effects on the nervous, endocrine, urogenital, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and respiratory systems but has no effect on the skin.

 

2. One of the following statements is not correct. Indicate the incorrect statement:

(a) AP at the same point can have opposite effects, i.e. needling ST36 (TsuSanLi) can control gastric spasm in one case and gastric atony in another.

(b) AP can help in early hepatitis or nephritis but may be of little use in severe fibrosis of the liver or kidney. AP can help in bronchospasm but may be of little use in emphysema with rupture of the alveoli.

(c) AP is effective in less than 40% of cases of equine lameness.

(d) AP is effective in treating paralysis in more than 70% of disc-disease cases and in less than 40% of myelopathy cases.

(e) Although claims are made for effectiveness of AP in tendinitis, many experts got poor results in these cases. Tendinitis responds better to local Laser or to Plum Blossom Needling than to AP.

 

3. One of the following statements is not correct. Indicate the incorrect statement:

Acupuncture has powerful therapeutic effects as the sole (only) or main therapy in the horse in:

(a) muscle pain

(b) radiculopathy due to soft tissue inflammation

(c) windsucking (aerophagia) with no other digestive signs

(d) early hepatitis

(e) bronchospasm

(f) early case of foal ataxia (wobbler), if used with neck manipulation

 

4. One of the following statements is correct. Indicate the correct statement:

Acupuncture has excellent therapeutic effects as the sole (only) or main therapy in the horse in:

(a) azotaemia/rhabdomyolysis

(b) spinal transection

(c) motor neuron degeneration

(d) colic with intussusception

(e) gastric ulcer in foals

 

5. One of the following statements is not correct. Indicate the incorrect statement:

Acupuncture has poor or no therapeutic effects as the sole (only) or main therapy in the horse in:

(a) acute laminitis

(b) severe damage to brain motor centres

(c) severe fibrosis of the kidney

(d) alveolar emphysema

(e) female infertility with uterine cysts/fibrosis

(f) chronic tendinitis, especially where owner will not rest horse

 

6. One of the following statements is not correct. Indicate the incorrect statement:

(a) If the Shu of one Channel is tender, the Shu of its paired Channel may be used also. Thus, in hindlimb lameness, if BL23 (kidney Shu) is tender, one can add BL28 (bladder Shu) to the prescription.

(b) Injury to the paravertebral area from the withers to the tail, whether due to incompetent riding, badly fitting saddle etc has little effect on racing performance.

(c) If there is weakness (deficiency) in a Channel, the Shu of the Mother Channel can help. Thus, in weakness of KI, one could use the LU Shu (BL13)

(d) If there is hyperactivity (excess energy) in a Channel, the Shu of the Son Channel can help. Thus, in excess of ST, one could add BL25 (LI Shu).

(e) Injury to a Shu point, or to any key AP point, can have effects far more serious than "local injury" in a western sense. It may induce signs and symptoms in the associated organ or Channel and in related Channels.

 

7. Shu point sensitivity may give diagnostic information on the location of Channel problems and helps greatly in the choice of AP points for therapy. One of the following statements is not correct. Indicate the incorrect statement:

(a) In mares and fillies, sporadic lameness can arise due to referred pain from ovarian or uterine irritation. It is essential in such cases to check for AhShi points related to the ovary and uterus. The most likely point to be tender in these cases is BL17.

(b) Tenderness at BL25 (lumbar 4-5, LI Shu) may relate to lameness of the anterolateral forelimb above the carpus or to anteromedial forelimb below the carpus.

(c) Horses with pain of the outside forelimb splint bone are more likely to show tenderness at BL15,22 or 27 (Shu of HT, TH or SI) than at BL13,14 or 25 (Shu of LU, PC or LI)

(d) BL23 (between the wings of L2-L3) may be tender in urogenital (renal, gonadal), adrenal and fertility disorders and in thoracolumbar problems, lameness related to psoas muscles.

(e) BL23 may be tender in post-castration pain, cryptorchidism, inguinal ring problems, inside hindlimb problems. If the tail twitches during riding, this indicates AhShi at BL23.

8. Shu point sensitivity may give diagnostic information on the location of Channel problems and helps greatly in the choice of AP points for therapy. One of the following statements is not correct. Indicate the incorrect statement:

(a) BL27 (SI Shu) may be tender in problems of the posterior side of the forelimb, tendons, sesamoids, heel bulb bruises, elbow (rare), sacral nerve plexus, biceps femoris, intestinal function.

(b) SI10, if still tender after proper Channel balancing, is diagnostic for LOCAL shoulder lameness (OCD)

(c) SI17 is related to the outside sesamoid, suspensory ligament and lameness at the posterior side of the forelimb. It also relates to ipsi- and contra- lateral lower sacral injury, hindlimb lameness and all neck problems.

(d) BL19 (GB Shu) is associated mainly with spain, periostitis, splints or lameness of the inside forelimb.

(e) TH17 and SI18 are tranquillizer points.

 

9. Shu point sensitivity may give diagnostic information on the location of Channel problems and helps greatly in the choice of AP points for therapy. One of the following statements is not correct. Indicate the incorrect statement:

(a) BL20 (SP Shu) may be tender in disorders of the spleen, pancreas; in digestive disorders, impaction, colic; in lameness of the inside hindlimb/stifle/hock (cunean tendon) and in thoracolumbar injury.

(b) Spleen points (BL20 (SP Shu), SP21,21a) are seldom if ever tender in bleeders or horses with blood disorders.

(c) BL18 (LV Shu) may be tender in allergy (elevated globulin levels), muddy colour of the eye mucosa, lacrimation and conjunctivitis, problems of muscles, tendons, ligaments, azoturia, myositis, (tying-up syndrome), elevated CPK, SGOT in blood.

(d) BL19 (GB Shu) may be tender in problems of muscles, tendons, ligaments, azoturia, myositis, (tying-up syndrome), elevated CPK, SGOT in blood. Tenderness at BL19 can arise in curbs. Reactive GB can cause spasm of the biceps femoris muscle, resulting in hindlimb lameness.

(e) BL21 (ST Shu) may be tender in digestive disorders, impaction, colic, in anterolateral hindlimb lameness, stifle lameness, sacrosciatic ligament, sacral pain at the origin of the biceps femoris, thoracolumbar injury. BL21 may be tender in shoulder pain when sternocephalicus is involved. This is common. ST10 (on sternocephalicus m.) relates to BL21 and to the ipsilateral stifle, especially if BL21 is tender.

 

10. Shu point sensitivity may give diagnostic information on the location of Channel problems and helps greatly in the choice of AP points for therapy. One of the following statements is not correct. Indicate the incorrect statement:

(a) The BL Channel is the most important. Its clinical uses include diagnosis and treatment (via the Shu points). BL points are used in almost every AP prescription.

(b) BL28,28a (BL Shu) may be tender in urogenital (renal, gonadal) disorders, in sacral problems, in all problems of the spinal column (from the atlas to the sacrum). BL28 is important in cervical misalignment, in sacrococcygeal injury (in transport etc), in stress-related pain of the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles.

(c) When a Shu point is injured (from trauma, external or internal causes), the GV point or the dorsal spinal process nearest it is usually tender and should be treated. Very superficial picks (just slightly subdermal) are all that is needed.

(d) CV01 + GV01 are useful to stimulate initial defecation in neonatal foals.

(e) GV14 (antifebrile point, anti-asthmatic point, problems of the neck, thoracic limb and upper thoracic spine) is located in the midline between the skull and the atlas bone.

 

11. A horse with poor appetite has a tender point on the left side, 10 cm lateral to the GV Channel, just behind the last rib. Which number (1 to 5) corresponds with:

 

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

a. the tender point : BL19 BL20 BL21 BL22 BL23
b. the Mother Point of ST: BL23 BL24 BL25 BL26 BL27
c. the Son Point of ST: BL23 BL24 BL25 BL26 BL27

 

12. A horse with poor stamina, dirty congested eyes, poor quality flaky hooves and tendency to azoturia/rhabdomyolysis is tender on right side on BL18. Which number (1 to 5) corresponds with:

 

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

a. the affected organ:

HT

LV

GB

SP

ST

b. the Mother Point of LV :

BL21

BL22

BL23

BL24

BL25

c. the Son Point of LV :

BL12

BL13

BL17

BL15

BL16

 

13. Two weeks after recovery from rotavirus infection, a 6-week-old foal develops mild colic, poor appetite, pasty dung, grinding of the teeth and dry harsh coat. Three tender points are located on the inner BL line. Which number (1 to 9) corresponds with the affected Channel linked to each tender point:

 

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

a. behind last rib : LU LI ST SP HT SI BL TH GB
b. at anterior edge of lumbar 6: LU LI ST SP HT SI BL TH GB
c. over sacral foramen 1 : LU LI ST SP HT SI BL TH GB

 

14. The points in 13 above are BL21, BL25, BL27. Which pair of points (a to d) is best for use with those three points in gastrointestinal disorders:

a. GB34 + LU07

b. ST36 + PC06

c. ST44 + ST06

d. SP10 + LI11

e. GB20 + GB21

 

15. A mare with a history of repeat breeding at 20-day intervals is tender bilaterally half way between lumbosacral space and external angle of the ilium. Which number (1 to 5) corresponds with:

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
a. the organ related to the point : KI LV ovary uterus cervix
b. the AP point at the tender point: BL23 BL24 BL25 BL26 BL27
c. the TH Shu point: BL20 BL21 BL22 BL23 BL24
d. the KI Shu point: BL20 BL21 BL22 BL23 BL24
e. the SP Shu point: BL20 BL21 BL22 BL23 BL24

 

16. Which letter (a to e) corresponds with the correct location of GV01:

a. between anus and vulva

b. between anus and tail

c. between tail vertebra 1-2

d. between tail vertebra 2-3

e. sacrococcygeal space

 

Answers