CLINICAL ACUPUNCTURE IN HORSES

Part 7
Marvin J. Cain DVM
Philip A.M. Rogers MRCVS
(Written 1985; revised 1987, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1995, 1996)

T14 and 15: LV and GB Channels (Wood) (FIGURES 12 and 11)

LV (Liver) and GB (Gallbladder) are related in Wood. When Shu point tenderness or clinical signs indicate Channel imbalance, treat the Shu point and the Shu of the paired Channel. LV Shu is BL18,47 and GB Shu is BL19,48. LV Mu is LV14 and GB Mu is GB24.

 

When treating LV problems, the Mother (KI) Channel must be balanced and stimulated (BL23) and the Son (HT, PC) Channels must be assessed (BL15,14) and treated, if needed.

 

When treating GB problems, the Mother (BL) Channel must be balanced and stimulated (BL28) and the Son (SI, TH) Channels must be assessed (BL27,22) and treated, if needed.

 

Wood may be used to support weakness of Fire. Thus, BL18 (LV) may help weak HT or PC and BL19 (GB) may help weak SI or TH. Weakness or excess activity in Wood (LV, GB) can have profound effect on the ovarian/endocrine system (via TH - Fire-, Son of Wood). Such cases often have thoracolumbar pain (near BL18,19,22 - Shu of LV, GB, TH) and may also have spasm and a choppy stride in the ipsilateral shoulder/ forelimb, via TH16 (see TH Channel).

 

The LV Channel runs from the medial bulb of the hind heel (LV01), up the posteromedial edge of the pastern, medial sesamoid (02), along the inner splint (03), to the anteromedial side of the hock (04), up the inner side of the leg (05-07), to the posterior edge of the medial epicondyle of the femur (08). It runs along the inner thigh behind the femur to the inside of the hip joint. Then it runs to the tip of rib 17 (LV13, SP Mu) and ends behind rib 9, one hand above the level of the olecranon (LV14, LV Mu). Internal branches to the liver, eye and "gallbladder" function.

 

Deficiencies are more common than excesses in the LV Channel. Therefore, adding more energy (by correct feeding, HERBAL medicine (fresh dandelions in spring) and lipotropic agents) are needed to obtain the optimal response.

 

The LV Channel is used with GB points in disorders of Wood. BL18,47 (LV Shu), LV13 (SP Mu) and LV14 (LV Mu) helps in myositis, azoturia, tying-up syndrome; to regulate SGOT, CPK, serum albumin and globulin; as immunoregulators; in allergies and eye problems (especially in spring (Wood); to regulate hoof-horn growth (Wood controls the nails) and in breeding problems (Wood is Mother of Fire (TH, PC)).

 

BL18 (LV Shu) may be tender in allergy (elevated globulin levels), muddy colour of the eye mucosa, lacrimation and conjunctivitis, problems of muscles, tendons, ligaments, azoturia, myositis, (tying-up syndrome), elevated CPK, SGOT in blood. The LV controls the eye in TCVM.

 

LV13,14 (Mu points of SP, LV) are very powerful points for balancing the Yin Channels, especially when coupled with SP21,21a (linking point for all Yin Channels, the Luo point for all Luo points).

 

The GB Channel begins at the lateral canthus of the eye (GB01). It runs to the ear (02), loops to the temporal (03-09) and post-auricular area (10-12) to above the eye (14), to the wing of the atlas (GB20). Then it follows the wings of the cervical vertebrae to the upper edge of the body of T1 half- way down the front edge of the scapula (GB21). It follows the lateral thorax to ICS 10 (GB24, SP Mu), then to the tip of rib 18 (GB25, KI Mu), forms a triangle of points (GB26-28) under the external iliac angle, curves around the hip joint (GB29,30), then down the lateral thigh behind the femur (31,32) to the posterior edge of the lateral epicondyle of the femur (GB33), the upper anterior notch between the fibula and tibia (GB34). It follows the lateral side of the leg to the lateral side of the hock (35-40), over the outer splint (41), the outer side of the fetlock (43), to end on the lateral side of the coronary band (GB44). Internal branches go to the liver and "gallbladder" function. A branch joins 25 to 25b just above the tuber coxae and rejoins 30. The tuber coxae point 25b is useful with BL19 in GB Channel problems, when BL19 (GB) is tender. Cain puts GB25a (another KI Mu) half way between the costochondral junction of rib 18 (GB25) and the lumbar muscles.

 

The GB is one of the most frequently used Channels (after the BL) in the horse. The GB and LV Channels are important in myositis and azoturia (tying- up syndrome), especially in spring (season of Wood). Wood relates to muscle, tendon, ligament and the Krebs cycle (LV). Imbalance of Wood relates to build-up of lactic acid, impaired blood buffering, elevated SGOT, CPK and arginase in blood. Balancing the Wood (GB, LV) is essential for muscle health and liver metabolism. Water (KI, BL), Fire (HT, SI, PC, TH), Earth (SP, ST) and Metal (LU, LI) can all interact with Wood. All must be in balance for full health.

 

In hindlimb lameness due to reflex spasm of the superficial gluteal muscle (may arise in damage to the sacral plexus, or due to backing up against fixed objects), the local point (GB30) must be balanced by BL19 (GB Shu) and BL27 (SI Shu; Fire is Son of Wood).

 

BL19 (GB Shu) may be tender in problems of muscles, tendons, ligaments, azoturia, myositis, (tying-up syndrome), elevated CPK, SGOT in blood. In curbs, tenderness can arise at BL19 (GB), BL28 (BL Shu, the Mother of GB) and BL27 (SI Shu, Son of GB). Reactive GB can cause spasm of the biceps femoris muscle, resulting in hindlimb lameness.

 

GB20 and 21 are essential in treating wobblers and neck pain. GB20 can be injured easily by bad riders and by tie-chains in stalls. This can cause subluxation of the atlas, requiring chiropractic adjustment. AP alone, in such cases, gives poor or only temporary relief.

 

 

T17 and T18: SP and ST Channels (Earth) (FIGURES 4 and 3)

SP (Spleen-Pancreas) and ST (Stomach) are related in Earth. When Shu point tenderness or clinical signs indicate Channel imbalance, treat the Shu point and the Shu of the paired Channel. SP Shu is BL20,49 and ST Shu is BL21,50. SP Mu is LV13 and ST Mu is CV12.

 

When treating SP problems, the Mother (HT, PC) Channels must be balanced and stimulated (BL15,14) and the Son (LU) Channel must be assessed (BL13) and treated, if needed.

 

When treating ST problems, the Mother (SI, TH) Channels must be balanced and stimulated (BL27,22) and the Son (LI) Channel must be assessed (BL25) and treated, if needed.

 

Earth may be used to support weakness of Metal. Thus, BL20 (SP) may help weak LU and BL21 (ST) may help weak LI.

 

The SP Channel runs from the medial side of the coronary band of the hind heel (SP01), up the inner side of the pastern (03), by the inner splint (04), along the anteromedial hock (05), up the inside leg behind the tibia (06-08), to the inner stifle behind the tibial head (09). It runs up the inner thigh to the lateral abdomen to the tip if rib 15 (15). It curves along the thorax to the ICS 4 (SP20) and ends in ICS 10 (SP21, controller of all Yin Channels, the Luo of all Luo points). Internal branches go to the spleen-pancreas, stomach and the muscles.

 

BL20 (SP Shu) may be tender in disorders of blood, circulation, spleen, pancreas; in digestive disorders, impaction, colic; in lameness of the inside hindlimb/stifle/hock (cunean tendon) and in thoracolumbar injury. The SP points (BL20 (SP Shu), SP21,21a) are always tender in bleeders.

 

Cain locates a point (SP21a) about 1 hand above the olecranon, in ICS 5. This point has similar diagnostic and therapeutic functions to SP21. It is located on the large plexus of the posterior thoracic nerves at the posterior border of the latissimus dorsi muscle. SP21,21a show extreme sensitivity with imbalance of ANY Channel, especially a Yin Channel (LU, SP, HT, KI, PC, LV). These points can be used with LV13,14 (Mu of SP, LV) to balance all Yin energies. SP21,21a are very powerful points. Be careful that the horse does not fall on you! This has happened to Cain. Check these points after ANY treatment. If the Channels are balanced, SP21,21a should not be tender. If they are, additional therapy is needed.

 

The ST Channel begins below the eye (ST01), runs to the oral canthus (04), masseter (06), the temporomandibular joint (07). It runs down the neck (09), along the ventral edge of the sternocephalicus to ST10 (about one hand cranial to the point of the shoulder). It runs along the ventrolateral thorax to ST25 (LI Mu, level with navel), into the groin and towards the anterior of the hip joint. It runs down the lateral thigh, parallel with the cranial edge of the femur (31-34), to the hole lateral to the patellar tendon (ST35), to 1 hand below the tibial tuberosity, lateral to the tibia, between the long and lateral digital extensor muscles (36). It continues down the anterolateral leg (37-40), to the anterolateral side of the hock (41), down the anterior side of the shin and pastern (43,44). It ends at the coronary band on the anterolateral side of the hind foot (ST45). Internal branches go to the stomach and spleen- pancreas. A branch goes from ST25 to the origin of the tensor fascia lata (25a) (at the lowest, posterior edge of the tuber coxae), to return to ST31. The tensor fascia lata point (25a) is used with BL21 (ST) in stifle lameness when BL21 (ST) is sensitive.

 

BL21 (ST Shu) may be tender in digestive disorders, impaction, colic, in anterolateral hindlimb lameness, stifle lameness, sacrosciatic ligament, sacral pain at the origin of the biceps femoris, thoracolumbar injury. ST10 (on sternocephalicus m.) relates to BL21. BL21 may be tender in shoulder pain when sternocephalicus is involved. This is common.

 

ST10 relates to the ipsilateral stifle, especially if BL21 is tender.

 

ST36 is used as a Local point for the stifle.

 

 

L2 and S2: KI and BL Channels (Water) (FIGURES 8 and 7)

KI (Kidney) and BL (Bladder) are related in Water. When Shu point tenderness or clinical signs indicate Channel imbalance, treat the Shu point and the Shu of the paired Channel. KI Shu is BL23,52 and BL Shu is BL28,53. KI Mu is GB25,25a and BL Mu is CV03.

 

When treating KI problems, the Mother (LU) Channel must be balanced and stimulated (BL13) and the Son (LV) Channel must be assessed (BL18) and treated, if needed.

 

When treating BL problems, the Mother (LI) Channel must be balanced and stimulated (BL25) and the Son (GB) Channel must be assessed (BL19) and treated, if needed.

 

Water may be used to support weakness of Wood. Thus, BL23 (KI) may help weak LV and BL28 (BL) may help weak GB.

 

The KI Channel runs from the hollow between the bulbs of the hind heels (KI01), up the back of the metatarsals to the posteromedial side of the hock (02-06). It ascends the inner leg (07-09) to the medial stifle, one hand behind the medial epicondyle of the femur (10). It runs up the inner thigh to the groin (11), and along the ventral abdomen, 3 fingers lateral to the midline, to reach KI16 (lateral to navel) and KI22 (on the rib-cartilage of the 6th rib). From here, it runs inside the forelimb muscles, along the thorax, to end at KI27, in the ICS 1, at the sternum. KI27 can be reached by a 10 cm needle through the anterior superficial pectoral m. Internal branches go to the kidney, bones, ear, spinal cord, adrenal, ovary, bladder.

 

BL23 (KI Shu) is between the wings of L2-L3. It relates to the inside of the hindlimb. BL23 and 47 may be tender in urogenital (renal, gonadal), adrenal and fertility disorders and in thoracolumbar problems. It may be tender with BL22 (TH) in lameness related to psoas muscles, post-castration pain, cryptorchidism, inguinal ring problems, inside hindlimb problems. In those cases, BL23 is helped by KI03,07,10 and BL28 (BL Shu). If the tail twitches during riding, this indicates AhShi at BL23.

 

The BL Channel is the most important. Its clinical uses include diagnosis and treatment (via the Shu points). BL points are used in almost every AP prescription. BL points from C1-S4 correspond with superficial branches of spinal nerves in the sympathetic (neck-lumbar) and para-sympathetic (sacral) areas.

 

The BL Channel runs from the medial canthus of the eye (BL01), up the forehead (02,03), and head medial to the ears (04-09), to the wing of the atlas (10), to the notch at the anterior upper edge of the scapula, just behind the tip of the spine of T2 (BL11) and T3 (BL12) beside the high point of the withers. The inner and outer BL lines run paravertebrally from T3-S4. Key landmarks are BL13,42 below spine of T8, at posterior edge of the scapular cartilage; BL21,50 just behind last rib; BL23,52 between wings of L2-L3; BL32,28,53 (medial to lateral) at 2nd sacral hole. The Channel continues down the posterolateral thigh in the muscle groove from just above the tuber ischii (BL54a) to below the tuber ischii (BL36,36a,37) to the popliteal area (BL38,39,40), down the posterolateral leg (BL55-59), to the notch between the Achilles tendon and the lower head of the tibia (BL60), over the lateral hock (BL61,62), down the outer splint (BL63-65) and sesamoid (BL66), to end at the coronary band at the lateral bulb of the hind heel (BL67). Internal branches go to the kidney, bladder and pelvic functions.

 

In humans, the sequence of Shu points (BL13-30) is:

Below level of spine of T3-T7 (BL13-17): LU, PC, HT, GV, Diaphragm-Blood-Haemorrhage

Below level of spine of T9-T12 (BL18-21): LV, GB, SP, ST

Below level of spine of L1-L5 (BL22-26): TH, KI-ovary, QiHaiShu, LI, GuanYuanShu

Below level of spine of S1-S4 (BL27-30): SI, BL, ZhongLuShu, BaiHuanShu

 

In the horse, pending careful provocation tests, one can transpose BL21 as in humans (just behind the last rib). The area just behind the posterior edge of the junction between the scapula and the scapular cartilage is consistently tender in lung disease (bleeders etc)- M.J.C. This point is below the spine of T8. It is taken to be BL13 (lung Shu). Another BL13 point is directly dorsal to this, at the edge of the scapular cartilage. Thus, it is easy to locate BL13 and BL21. The simplest way to locate BL12-20 is as follows:

 

There are 9 points between (and including) BL13-21. BL17 can be taken as mid-way between them. The remaining points (BL14-16 and BL18-20) can be located easily by counting forward or backward from BL17.

 

However, more accurate locations of equine Shu points BL13-21 (LU, PC, HT, GV, Diaphragm-Blood-Haemorrhage, LV, GB, SP and ST respectively) are as follows:

 

HORSE THORACIC SHU POINTS

BL13 FeiShu = LU Shu: Below the dorsal spine of T8, at caudal edge of scapular cartilage in 8th intercostal space (ICS 8) (M.J.C). It relates to the inside of the forelimb. Its partner is BL42

BL14 JueYinShu = PC Shu: Below the dorsal spine of T9 (ICS 9). It relates to the inside of the forelimb. Its partner is BL43.

BL15 XinShu = HT Shu: Below the dorsal spine of T10 (ICS 10), lateral to GV10. It relates to the inside of the forelimb. Its partner is BL44.

BL16 DuShu = GV Shu: Below the dorsal spine of T11 (ICS 11). It relates to the dorsal surface of the back and local (nearby) organs and their functions. Its partner is BL45.

BL17 GeShu = Diaphragm-Blood-Haemorrhage Shu: Below the dorsal spine of T12 (ICS 12). It relates to diaphragm, blood diseases, and immunity. Its partner is BL46.

BL18 GanShu = LV Shu: Below the dorsal spine of T14 (14th ICS, or 4th last). It relates to the inside of the hindlimb. Its partner is BL47.

BL19 DanShu = GB Shu: Below the dorsal spine of T16 (16th ICS, or 2nd last). It relates to the outside of the hindlimb. Its partner is BL48.

BL20 PiShu = SP Shu: Below the dorsal spine of T18 (last ICS). It relates to the inside of the hindlimb. Its partner is BL49.

 

HORSE LUMBAR SHU POINTS

BL21 WeiShu = ST Shu: Below the dorsal spine of L1, just behind last rib. It relates to the anterolateral side of the hindlimb. Its partner is BL50.

BL22 SanJiaoShu = TH Shu: A key Endocrine point, behind the wings of L1. It relates to the lateral neck and the outside of the forelimb and to endocrine problems, especially reproductive. Its partner is BL51.

BL23 ShenShu = KI Shu: Between the wings of L2-L3. (Cain and Glardon find the latter place the more important. It relates to the inside of the hind limb and to KI-gonad-adrenal and bone function. Its partner is BL52.

BL24 QiHaiShu = Qi Sea Shu: Behind the wings of L4.

BL25 DaChangShu = LI Shu: Behind the wings of L5, behind a line between the most anterior point of the left and right external angle of the ilium. It relates to the outside of the forelimb. It may be tender in colic and sciatica.

BL26 GuanYuanShu = Gate Origin Shu, Uterus Shu: Behind the wings of L6, before a line between the highest points of the left and right tuber coxae.

 

HORSE SACRAL SHU POINTS

BL27 XiaoChangShu = SI Shu: Lateral to sacral foramen 1; it relates to the back of the forelimb. BL31 is medial to it.

BL27a Unnamed = another SI Shu: lateral to GV02 (sacrococcygeal space). This point is more reactive than the classical BL27 in SI problems. It is very close to, if not the same as Cain's sacral hip-stifle point. It has the same functions as BL27.

BL28 PangGuanShu = BL Shu: lateral to sacral foramen 2, at the top of the muscle crease. It relates to the posterior side of the hindlimb. BL32 is medial to it. Its lateral partner in humans is BL53.

BL28a Unnamed = another BL Shu: lateral to coccygeal 2, in the groove just posterior to the origin of the biceps femoris, about 2 inches behind BL27a. This point is more reactive than the classical BL28 in BL problems (M.J.C). It has the same functions as BL28, as have BL32. BL28,28a (BL) may be tender in urogenital (renal, gonadal) disorders, in sacral problems, in all problems of the spinal column (from the atlas to the sacrum). BL28 is important in cervical misalignment, in sacrococcygeal injury (in transport etc), in stress-related pain of the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles. It is used also in GB-related (see BL19) lameness; Water (BL) is the Mother of Wood (GB) in the Sheng cycle.

BL29 ZhongLuShu = Middle of Back Shu: lateral to sacral foramen 3. BL33 is medial to it.

BL30 BaiHuanShu = White Circle Shu, Anus: lateral to sacral foramen 4. BL34 is medial to it. Its lateral partner in humans is BL54.

 

In humans, the Outer paravertebral BL line (O = points BL41-52, between vertebrae T2 and L2) has a relationship to the Inner (I) line:

O (41 to 52) = I (12 to 23) + 29, i.e. points BL12,41 / 13,42 / ... / 23,52 / are functional pairs.

 

The outer (O) point is in the SAME ICS, lateral to the inner (I) point. The same relationship applies in the horse. The outer BL line relates to the parasympathetic nervous system. In particular, BL42 (ICS 8 in the horse; partner of BL13) is sensitive in lung bleeders, especially on the right side.

 

Human points BL53 and 54 are lateral to BL28 and 30 (lateral to sacral foramina 2 and 4 respectively). In horses, BL53 is just behind the anterior edge of the external angle of the ilium, lateral to BL26; BL54 is level with coccygeal 1-2 space, below and in front of BL28a. BL54a is below BL53, in the muscle crease just at the tuber ischii. BL54 and 54a are used in hip and thigh problems.

 

BL24 (QiHaiShu) and BL26 (GuanYuanShu)

These points are used mainly for local effects, as in lumbar and sacral disorders. There is a traditional horse point GuanYuanShu behind last rib. It is active on gastrointestinal problems and should not be confused with BL26, which has effects on the uterus. BL24,26 may be active in disorders of the lumbosacral ligaments, sciatica, pain at the insertion of the longissimus dorsi, iliosacral ligament, middle gluteal muscle, sacrosciatic ligament, sacral nerve plexus.

 

The lumbar Shu (BL21,22,23,24,25,26: ST, TH, KI, QiHaiShu, LI, GuanYuanShu) reflect the sympathetic nervous (cervicolumbar) and endocrine systems.

 

The sacral Shu (BL27,28,29,30: SI, BL, ZhongLuShu, BaiHuanShu) reflect the parasympathetic nervous system (craniosacral).

 

 

CV Channel (FIGURE 13)

The CV (Conception Vessel) Channel runs in the ventral midline, from CV01 (between the anus and the vulva/root of the penis, along the perinaeum above the penis or mammary gland, to the navel (CV08), to the tip of the xiphoid (CV14), to the manubrium sterni (CV22), to the hollow above the larynx (CV23), to the centre of the lower lip (CV24). This Channel is important in humans as Mu points for BL, SI, TH, ST, HT, PC (CV03,04,05,12,14,17 respectively) are on it. In the horse, points CV03-08 can be dangerous to needle but CV12,14,17 are relatively easy to needle. Horses, however, often tolerate Shiatsu (deep massage) of awkward points. CV12 is located midway between the navel and the xiphoid. CV17 is located about 1 hand anterior to the caudal border of the olecranon, on the sternum.

 

Shiatsu at CV05 can be used with AP at other points in endocrine/autonomic disorders (lack of sweating, breeding problems, thyroid problems). CV08,12 are useful in colic (Shiatsu or massage with heat-producing liniment).

 

CV01 + GV01 are useful to stimulate initial defecation in neonatal foals.

 

Stimulation of the clitoris (YinTi) produces a strong extensor reflex of the hindlimbs. This is of clinical use in dogs with posterior paresis: if marked extensor reflex is not produced, the prognosis is poor (M.J.C). In cows, warm Laser stimulation of the clitoris can help in the treatment of infertility.

 

CV23 (needling or Laser) is useful in pharyngitis (M.J.C).

 

 

GV Channel (FIGURE 14)

The GV (Governing Vessel) Channel runs in the dorsal midline from GV01, (between the anus and the root of the tail), to the sacrococcygeal space (WeiKen, GV02), to the lumbosacral space (BaiHui, GV03), to the L2-L3 space (GV04), to the T5-T6 space (GV11), to the T3-T4 space (GV12), to the top of the head (GV20), to the midpoint between the nostrils, at their lower limit (GV26). It ends at GV28, between the upper lip and the upper gum.

 

The GV is a very important Channel in humans. Its points have similar functions to their nearest BL points. In the horse, because it can be difficult to penetrate the dorsal midline between L1 and T8, points GV05-10 are not used often. However, GV01,02,03,04,11,12,14 and 26 are very important points. GV01-04 are used in problems of the hindquarter, genitourinary system and hindgut.

 

When a Shu point is injured (from trauma, external or internal causes), the GV point or the dorsal spinal process nearest it is usually tender and should be treated. Very superficial picks (just slightly subdermal) are all that is needed.

 

GV01 + CV01 are useful to stimulate initial defecation in neonatal foals. The tip of the tail (GV00) is a special action point, used in shock and recumbency.

 

GV11 and 12, at the highest point of the withers, are related clinically to GV14 in humans (antifebrile point, antiasthmatic point, problems of the neck, thoracic limb and upper thoracic spine). GV11,12 often are tender in cervical problems in horses. They are as important to the forequarter as BaiHui (GV03) to the hindquarter. After adjustment of subluxated neck vertebrae (see 1.2.4), balance at GV11,12 can be obtained by pricking superficially with a 22g needle. The points can be injected with 0.1 ml homeopathic NaOH 9d. This releases spasm at the origin of the trapezius, latissimus, rhomboideus, serratus and other deep muscles attached to the withers. Occasionally, BL14 (PC Shu) and the GV point in between may be tender in breeding problems (M.J.C). The withers area is very prone to pressure injury from the pommel of the saddle or from bad riders, who ride too far forward. This is the site of fistulous withers and a point easy to injure the bursae of the supraspinous ligaments/neck muscle attachments.

 

GV26, the Shock Point, is useful in emergencies in all species. It is effective in stimulating respiration and circulation in the newborn foal. GV01 + CV01 are useful to stimulate initial defecation in neonatal foals.

 

REFERENCES

  1. Hwang,Y.C. (1990) Handbook on Chinese veterinary acupuncture and moxibustion. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok. 193pp.
  2. Klide,A. & Kung,S. (1977) Veterinary AP. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, USA. 297pp.
  3. Kothbauer,O. & Meng,A. (1983) Veterinary AP: cattle, pigs and horses (in German) Verlag Welsermuhl, Wels, Austria. 334pp.
  4. Lin,J.H. & Rogers,P.A.M. (1980) AP effects on the body's defence systems. A veterinary review. Vet. Bulletin 50, 633-640.
  5. Lin,J.H. (1985) AP in the ox, pig, horse, goat & dog. (in Chinese). Write c/o Dept. Animal Husbandry, National Taiwan University, TAIPEI, TAIWAN, R.O.C.
  6. Rogers,P.A.M. & Ottaway,C.W. (1974) Success claimed for acupuncture in domestic animals. A veterinary news item. Irish Vet. J., 28, 182-191.
  7. Rogers,P.A.M., White,S.S. & Ottaway,C.W. (1977) Stimulation of the acupoints in relation to analgesia and therapy of clinical disorders in animals. Vet. Annual (Wright Scitechnica, Bristol) 17, 258-279.
  8. Rogers,P.A.M. (1979) Acupuncture in equine practice: a brief review. Irish Vet. J., 33, 19-25.
  9. Rogers,P.A.M. (1981) Serious complications of acupuncture... or acupuncture abuses ? Amer. J. Acup., 9, 347-350.
  10. Rogers,P.A.M. & Bossy,J. (1981) Activation of the defence systems of the body in animals and man by acupuncture and moxibustion. Acup. Res. Quarterly (Taiwan) 5, 47-54.
  11. Rogers,P.A.M. (1996) Choice of points for particular conditions. In: An Introduction to Veterinary AP. Proceedings of a training Course for Irish Veterinaians, Part 1, Dublin.
  12. van den Bosch,E. (1995) Acupuncture Points and Meridians in the Horse. Contact the author at G. van Heuvelstraat, Ramsel, Belgium (Fax: 32-1656-1374).
  13. Westermayer,E. (1980) Treatment of horses by AP. Health Science Press, Holsworthy, Devon, UK. 90pp.
  14. White,S.S., Herbert,P.A. & Hwang,T. (1985) Electro-AP in veterinary medicine. Chinese Materials Centre Publications, San Francisco. 122pp.

...CONTINUE (QUESTIONS)...